Glossary of nutrition terms A-Z

Glossary of diet and nutritional terms A-Z

A

ABSORPTION. Uptake by the digestive tract.

    • Absorption. Uptake by the digestive tract.
    • Acceptable daily intake (adi). The level of a substance that a person can consume every day over a lifetime without risk. The adis for artificial sweeteners are very conservative measurements.
    • Acceptable macronutrient distribution range (amdr). A range of intakes for a particular energy source that is associated with reduced risk of chronic disease while providing adequate intakes of essential nutrients. An amdr is expressed as a percentage of total energy intake.
    • Acesulfame potassium. A calorie-free artificial sweetener, also known as acesulfame k or ace k, and marketed under the trade names sunett and sweet one. Acesulfame potassium is 180-200 times sweeter than sucrose (table sugar), as sweet as aspartame, about half as sweet as saccharin, and one-quarter the sweetness of sucralose. Like saccharin, it has a slightly bitter aftertaste, especially at high concentrations. Kraft foods has patented the use of sodium ferulate to mask acesulfame’s aftertaste. Alternatively, acesulfame k is often blended with other sweeteners (usually sucralose or aspartame) acidophilus. Bacteria found in yogurt that, when ingested, helps restore the normal bacterial populations in the human digestive system.
    • Acne vulgaris. An inflammatory disease of the skin characterized by pimples and cysts that may cause scarring in severe cases.
    • Adipose tissue. A type of connective tissue that contains stored cellular fat.
    • Adrenaline. Hormone produced by the adrenal glands that increases heart and respiration rates.
    • Aerobic exercise. Moderate intensity exercise, done over a long duration, that uses oxygen. Aerobic exercise strengthens the cardiovascular system and lungs.
    • Albumen. The white of the egg. It can be separated from the yolk for cooking or to avoid the high fat and high cholesterol content of the yolk.
    • Algae (sing., alga). Any of numerous groups of one-celled organisms containing chlorophyll. Spirulina is a blue-green alga.
    • Alkaloid. An organic, compound found in plants; chemically it is a base and usually contains at least one nitrogen atom.
    • Allergen. Any substance that produces an allergic reaction.
    • Alpha-linolenic acid (ala). A polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acid found primarily in seed oils (canola oil, flaxseed oil, and walnut oil), purslane and other broad-leaved plants, and soybeans. Ala is thought to lower the risk of cardiovascular disease.
    • Alternative medicine. A system of healing that rejects conventional, pharmaceutical-based medicine and replaces it with the use of dietary supplements and therapies such as herbs, vitamins, minerals, massage, and cleansing diets. Alternative medicine includes well-established treatment systems such as homeopathy, traditional chinese medicine, and ayurvedic medicine, as well as more-recent, fad-driven treatments.
    • Alzheimer’s disease. A progressive, incurable condition that destroys brain cells, gradually causing loss of intellectual abilities, such as memory, and extreme changes in personality and behavior.
    • Amaranth. An herb cultivated as a food crop in mexico and south america. Its grains can be toasted and mixed with honey or molasses as a vegetarian treat.
    • Amenorrhea. Absence or suppression of normal menstrual periods in women of childbearing age, usually defined as three to six missed periods.
    • Amino acid. These compounds are the building blocks of protein. Some amino acids can be synthesised by the body but some cannot. The latter are referred to as essential amino acids and therefore must be obtained from protein in the diet.
    • Amphetamines. Stimulant drugs whose effects are very similar to cocaine.
    • Amyloidosis. Condition characterized by accumulation in body tissues of deposits of abnormal proteins (amyloids) produced by cells. Amyloidosis can lead to kidney disease.
    • Anabolic steroid. A group of synthetic hormones that promote the storage of protein and the growth of tissue, sometimes used by athletes to increase muscle size and strength.
    • Anabolic. Pertaining to the putting together of complex substances from simples ones, especially to the building of muscle protein from amino acids.
    • Anal fissure. A crack or slit that develops in the mucous membrane of the anus, often as a result of a constipated person pushing to expel hardened stool.
    • Analgesic. A substance capable of producing analgesia, meaning one that relieves pain.
    • Anemia. Low level of red blood cells in the blood.
    • Angina pectoris. Chest pain or discomfort.
    • Anorectic. A drug which suppresses the appetite.
    • Anorexia nervosa. A psychiatric disorder signified by obsession with weight loss and voluntary selfstarvation accompanied by serious, potentially fatal health problems.
    • Anorexiant. A drug that causes loss of appetite.
    • Anthropological. Pertaining to anthropology or the study or the natural and cultural history of humans.
    • Anti-inflammatory. Medication such as aspirin or ibuprophen that reduces swelling.
    • Antianemic. Preventing or curing anemia, a condition characterized by a lower than normal count of red blood cells.
    • Antibiotic. A drug that kills bacteria and other germs.
    • Antibody. A protein produced by the body’s immune system that recognizes and helps fight infections and other foreign substances in the body.
    • Anticoagulants. Blood thinners.
    • Antidepressants. Drugs used primarily to treat depression.
    • Antioxidant. A molecule that prevents oxidation. In the body antioxidants attach to other molecules called free radicals and prevent the free radicals from causing damage to cell walls, dna, and other parts of the cell.
    • Antioxidative. A substance that inhibits oxidation.
    • Antipyretic. An agent that reduces or prevents fever.
    • Appetite suppressant. Drug that decreases feelings of hunger. Most work by increasing levels of serotonin or catecholamine, chemicals in the brain that control appetite.
    • Atherosclerosis. Clogging, narrowing, and hardening of the large arteries and medium-sized blood vessels. Atherosclerosis can lead to stroke, heart attack, eye problems and kidney problems.
    • Atp. Adenosine triphosphate, a high-energy phosphate molecule required to provide energy for cellular function. The energy source of muscles for short bursts of power.
    • Autism. A brain disorder that begins in early childhood and persists throughout adulthood. It affects three important areas of development: communication, social interaction, and creative or imaginative play.
    • Auto-immunity. A response, involving the immune system, that results in a person’s own tissues being attacked.
    • Autoimmune disease. An illness that occurs when the body tissues are attacked by its own immune system.
    • Autointoxication. A belief, now discredited, that the contents of the intestine are toxic and produce poisons that can damage other body organs.
    • Autonomic nervous system. The part of the nervous system that innervates the smooth muscle of the viscera, the heart, and glandular tissue, and governs the body’s involuntary functions and responses.
    • Autosomal recessive. A term used to describe a pattern of genetic inheritance in which a child receives two copies of a defective gene, one from each parent, on an autosome (a nonsex chromosome). Msud is an autosomal recessive disorder.
    • Avocado soybean unsaponifiables (asu). A compound of the fractions of avocado oil and soybean oil that cannot be used in the production of soap. Asu shows promise in the treatment of oa. It is available only by prescription in france, where it was first studied, but can be purchased over the counter in the united states.
    • Ayurveda.The traditional system of natural medicine that originated in india around 3500 bc. Its name is sanskrit for ‘‘science of long life.’’ some people have tried ayurvedic medicines and dietary recommendations in the treatment of arthritis.
    • Acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (amdr)—range of intake for a particular energy source (I.E., carbohydrate, fat, and protein) that is associated with reduced risk of chronic disease while providing intakes of essential nutrients. If an individual’s intake is outside of the amdr, there is a potential of increasing the risk of chronic diseases and/or insufficient intakes of essential nutrients.
    • Acid-base balance – in medicine, the state of having the right amount of acid and base in the blood and other body fluids. Keeping a normal acid-base balance is important for the body to work the way it should. Also called acid-base equilibrium.
    • Added refined starch—the starch constituent (see carbohydrates) of a grain, such as corn, or of a vegetable, such as potato, used as an ingredient in another food. Starches have been refined to remove other components of the food, such as fiber, protein, and minerals. Refined starches can be added to foods as a thickener, a stabilizer, a bulking agent, or an anti-caking agent. While refined starches are made from grains or vegetables, they contain little or none of the many other components of these foods that together create a nutrient-dense food. They are a source of calories but few or no other nutrients.
    • Added sugars—syrups and other caloric sweeteners used as a sweetener in other food products. Naturally occurring sugars such as those in fruit or milk are not added sugars. Specific examples of added sugars that can be listed as an ingredient include brown sugar, corn sweetener, corn syrup, dextrose, fructose, glucose, high-fructose corn syrup, honey, invert sugar, lactose, malt syrup, maltose, molasses, raw sugar, sucrose, trehalose, and turbinado sugar. (see carbohydrates, sugars.)
    • Additives – additives are substances added to food to improve flavour, colour, and texture or to preserve foods to help extend the shelf life
    • Adequate intakes (ai)—a recommended average daily nutrient intake level based on observed or experimentally determined approximations or estimates of mean nutrient intake by a group (or groups) of apparently healthy people. An ai is used when the recommended dietary allowance cannot be determined.
    • Adipose tissue is fat tissue.
    • Aerobic physical activity aerobic (or endurance) physical activities use large muscle groups (back, chest, and legs) to increase heart rate and breathing for an extended period of time. Examples include bicycling, brisk walking, running, and swimming. Federal guidelines recommend that adults get 150 to 300 minutes of aerobic activity a week [see physical activity].
    • Amino acid -a large organic molecule that is the basic building block of proteins. There are 20 different amino acids that link together in various order to form proteins. The order of amino acids is determined by the genetic sequence.
    • Amino acids – amino acids are the building blocks of all proteins. There are 20 different amino acids that combine in different sequences to make all the proteins required for metabolism and growth. Our body can manufacture 12 of these amino acids from recycled proteins; however the other eight need to be derived from the food we eat.
    • Anal fissures are quite painful and difficult to heal.
    • Anemia – anemia is the term used for a number of medical conditions when there is too little red blood cells, or they are too immature or do not contain sufficient hemoglobin to carry adequate oxygen to the tissues. The most common causes are nutrient deficiencies, excessive bleeding or red cell destruction.
    • Angina pectoris is the more common and stable form of angina. Stable angina has a pattern and is more predictable in nature, usually occurring when the heart is working harder than normal.
    • Anorexia nervosa
    • Anthocyanins – anthocyanins are natural pigments that occur in plants, fruits and vegetables. They give plants the blue and red colours as seen in blueberries and plums. They belong to a group of plant compounds called flavonoids, and are believed to behave as antioxidants
    • Antioxidant -a substance that protects cells from the damage caused by free radicals (unstable molecules made by the process of oxidation during normal metabolism). Free radicals may play a part in cancer, heart disease, stroke, and other diseases of aging. Antioxidants include beta-carotene, lycopene, vitamins a, c, and e, and other natural and manufactured substances.
    • Antioxidants – antioxidants assist in protecting your body against the damage caused by free radicals by neutralising them. Free radicals are very reactive compounds formed in the body due to both external factors such as smoking, exposure to the sun, air pollution and internal factors such as the body’s normal metabolic processes and the immune system. Free radicals can attack healthy cells in the body leading to cataract development and other conditions of ageing. They are also thought to be involved in the development of many diseases including cardiovascular disease and cancer. The body makes its own antioxidants, but also makes extensive use of dietary antioxidants. Dietary antioxidants include:
    • Ascorbic acid – ascorbic acid is the chemical name for vitamin c, as found in many fruits and vegetables.
    • Atherosclerosis – atherosclerosis is a build-up of plaque in the wall of the arteries causing narrowing and loss of elasticity. Plaque contains deposits of fats, cholesterol and cell waste products. Dangerous condition in which victims lose interest in eating and become dangerously thin; usually associated with false beliefs about being too fat.

    Glossary of diet and nutritional terms B

    • B-complex vitamins. A group of water-soluble vitamins that often work together in the body. These include thiamine (b1), riboflavin (b2), niacin (b3), pantothenic acid (b5), pyridoxine (b6), biotin (b7 or vitamin h), niacin/folic acid (b9), and cobalamin (b12).
    • Bacteria. Microscopic, single-celled organisms found in air, water, soil, and food. Only a few actually cause disease in humans.
    • Bactericidal. A state that prevents growth of bacteria.
    • Barberry. A shrub native to southern europe and western asia that produces oblong red berries that have a sour taste. Barberry has been used as a natural treatment for giardiasis.
    • Bariatrics. A medical specialty that deals with weight management and the treatment of obesity.
    • Barrett’s syndrome. Also called barrett’s esophagus or barrett’s epithelia, this is a condition where the squamous epithelial cells that normally line the esophagus are replaced by thicker columnar epithelial cells.
    • Basal metabolic rate. The number of calories the body burns at rest to maintain normal body functions.
    • Bateriostatic. A substance that kills bacteria.
    • Beaver fever. An informal name for giardiasis, so called because beavers are a common animal reservoir of the parasite that causes giardiasis.
    • Behavior modification. Changing an individual’s behavior through positive and negative responses to achieve a desired result.
    • Behavior therapy. A non-biological form of therapy that developed largely out of learning theory research and is normally applied to the treatment of specific maladaptive behavior patterns.
    • Benign. Mild, does not threaten health or life.
    • Benzoic acid. A type of preservative used in processed foods known to cause food sensitivity in some individuals when consumed in the diet.
    • Bile acids. Produced by the liver, from cholesterol, for the digestion and absorption of fat.
    • Bile ducts. Tubes that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder for storage and to the small intestine for use in digestion.
    • Bile. Fluid made by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. Bile helps break down fats and gets rid of wastes in the body.
    • Binge drinking. Usually used to refer to heavy drinking over an evening or similar time span. Sometimes also referred to as heavy episodic drinking.
    • Binge eating disorder. A mental eating disorder that features the consumption of large amounts of food in short periods of time.
    • Bioavailability. Availability to living organisms, based on chemical form.
    • Biodiversity. The presence of many different species of plants and animals within a limited geographical region.
    • Bioelectrical impedance analysis (bia). A technique for evaluating body composition by passing a small amount of electrical current through the body and measuring the resistance of different types of tissue.
    • Biofeedback. A technique for improving awareness of internal bodily sensations in order to gain conscious control over digestion and other processes generally considered to be automatic.
    • Biomolecule. Any organic molecule that is an essential part of a living organism.
    • Bipolar disorder.A psychiatric disorder marked by alternating episodes of mania and depression.
    • Bland diet. A diet that is free of irritating or stimulating foods.
    • Blood brain barrier. A physiological mechanism that alters the permeability of brain capillaries, so that some substances, such as certain drugs, are prevented from entering brain tissue, while other substances are allowed to enter freely.
    • Blood cholesterol. Cholesterol is a molecule from which hormones, steroids and nerve cells are made. It is an essential molecule for the human body and circulates in the blood stream. Between 75 and 80% of the cholesterol that circulates in a person’s bloodstream is made in that person’s liver. The remainder is acquired from animal dietary sources. It is not found in plants. Normal blood cholesterol level is a number obtained from blood tests. A normal cholesterol level is defined as less than 200 mg of cholesterol per deciliter of blood.
    • Blood doping. Practice of illicitly boosting the number of red blood cells in the circulation in order to enhance athletic performance.
    • Blood plasma. The pale yellowish, protein-containing fluid portion of the blood in which cells are suspended. 92% water, 7% protein and 1% minerals.
    • Bmr is a measurement of the level of energy required to maintain the bodys vital life functions. Measured when the body is at complete rest.
    • Body dysmorphic disorder. A mental disorder involving extreme preoccupation with some feature of one’s appearance. Excessive time spent in physical exercise, often involving bodybuilding or weight-lifting practices, is a common symptom of the disorder in adolescents.
    • Body mass index. Also known as bmi, the index determines whether a person is at a healthy weight, underweight, overweight, or obese.
    • Bodybuilding. Developing muscle size and tone, usually for competitive exhibition.
    • Bone mineral density (bmd). Test used to measure bone density and usually expressed as the amount of mineralized tissue in the area scanned (g/cm2). It is used for the diagnosis of osteoporosis.
    • Borderline personality disorder. A serious mental illness characterized by ongoing instability in moods, interpersonal relationships, self-image, and behavior.
    • Botanical. An herb; a dietary supplement derived from a plant.
    • Bran. The outer layer of cereal kernel that contains fiber and nutrients. It is removed during the refining process.
    • Brown adipose tissue. Bat; brown fat; a heatproducing tissue found primarily in human fetuses and infants and hibernating animals.
    • Bulimia. Also called bulimia nervosa, an eating disorder characterized by binges, or eating much food in little time, followed by purging behaviors, such as throwing up or taking laxatives.
    • Bariatric surgery – bariatric surgery (bear-ee-at-ric) also known as gastrointestinal surgery or weight-loss surgery, this is surgery on the stomach and/or intestines to help patients with extreme obesity lose weight. Bariatric surgery is a weight-loss method used for people who have a body mass index (bmi) of 40 or more. Surgery may also be an option for people with a bmi between 35 and 40 who have health problems related to obesity like heart disease or type 2 diabetes.
    • Bioavailability – bioavailability is the ease at which a substance can be absorbed from the digestive tract and into the bloodstream. The higher the bioavailability, the greater the absorption.
    • Bioelectrical impedance analysis (bia)
    • Blood cholesterol—cholesterol that travels in the serum of the blood as distinct particles containing both lipids and proteins (lipoproteins). Also referred to as serum cholesterol. Two kinds of lipoproteins are:
    • Body weight category children and adolescents (ages 2 to 19 years)
    • Body mass index (bmi)—a measure of weight in kilograms (kg) relative to height in meters squared (m2). Bmi is considered a reasonably reliable indicator of total body fat, which is related to the risk of disease and death. Bmi status categories include underweight, healthy weight, overweight, and obese (table a6-1 ). Overweight and obese describe ranges of weight that are greater than what is considered healthy for a given height, while underweight describes a weight that is lower than what is considered healthy. Because children and adolescents are growing, their bmi is plotted on growth charts for sex and age. The percentile indicates the relative position of the child’s bmi among children of the same sex and age.
    • Body mass index (bmi)—a measure of weight in kilograms (kg) relative to height in meters squared (m2). Bmi is considered a reasonably reliable indicator of total body fat, which is related to the risk of disease and death. Bmi status categories include underweight, healthy weight, overweight, and obese. Overweight and obese describe ranges of weight that are greater than what is considered healthy for a given height, while underweight describes a weight that is lower than what is considered healthy. Because children and adolescents are growing, their bmi is plotted on growth charts for sex and age. The percentile indicates the relative position of the child’s bmi among children of the same sex and age.
    • Bone density – bone density is a measure of the strength of a bone by determining the amount of minerals (e.G. Calcium) in relation to the amount of bone. Bone density increases throughout childhood and adolescence to peak at about 30 years of age then slowly declines as we continue aging.
    • Bone-strengthening activity a physical activity that promotes the growth and strength of bones. Examples include weight lifting and push-ups.
    • Bran – bran is the outer layer of a grain. It is a good source of fibre, vitamins and minerals. The bran is present in wholegrain cereals and breads but is lost during the refining process that is used to make many products such as white bread.

    Glossary of diet and nutritional terms C

    • C caffeine. A plant alkaloid found in coffee, tea, hot chocolate, and some soft drinks that functions as a diuretic as well as a central nervous system stimulant.
    • C-reactive protein (crp). A marker of inflammation circulating in the blood has been proposed as a method to identify persons at risk of these diseases.
    • Calcium carbonate. A salt that is used in many antacids.
    • Calcium. Calcium is a mineral present in large quantities in the body, mainly in the bones and teeth.
    • Caloric. Relating to heat or calories, also, full of calories, and so likely to be fattening.
    • Calorie reduction. A decrease in the number of calories that a person consumes.
    • Calorie.A unit of food energy. In nutrition terms, the word calorie is used instead of the scientific term kilocalorie which represents the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of one liter of water by one degree centigrade at sea level. In nutrition, a calorie of food energy refers to a kilocalorie and is therefore equal to 1000 true calories of energy.
    • Carbohydrate addiction. A compelling hunger, craving, or desire for foods high in carbohydrates, or an escalating and recurring need for starchy foods, snack foods, junk foods, and sweets.
    • Carbohydrate. A nutrient that the body uses as an energy source. A carbohydrate provide 4 calories of energy per gram.
    • Carboxyl group. The carbon atom at the end of a fatty acid hydrocarbon chain is attached by a double bond to oxygen and by a single bond to hydrogen forming the chemical structure carboxyl.
    • Carcinogen. A cancer-causing substance.
    • Cardiac arrhythmia. A group of conditions in which the muscle contraction of the heart is irregular or is faster or slower than normal.
    • Cardiovascular disease. This describes medical conditions that relate to disease of the heart and circulatory system ( blood vessels) such as angina, heart attacks and strokes.
    • Cardiovascular. Pertaining to the heart and blood vessels.
    • Caries. Cavities in the teeth.
    • Carminative. A substance that stops the formation of intestinal gas and helps expel gas that has already formed.
    • Carnitine. This is a naturally occurring substance, needed for the oxidation of fatty acids, a deficiency of which is known to have major adverse effects on the cns.
    • Carnivore. An animal whose diet consists mostly or entirely of meat. Cats, wolves, snakes, birds of prey, frogs, sharks, spiders, seals, and penguins are all carnivores.
    • Carotenoid.Fat-soluble plant pigments, some of which are important to human health.
    • Carrier. A person who harbors an infectious agent or a defective gene without showing clinical signs of disease themselves and who can transmit the infection to others or the defective gene to their children.
    • Catabolism. The breakdown of complex molecules.
    • Cataract. A condition where the lens of the eye becomes cloudy.
    • Cecum. The pouch-like start of the large intestine that links it to the small intestine.
    • Celiac disease. A digestive disease that causes damage to the small intestine. It results from the ability to digest gluten found in wheat, rye, and barley.
    • Cell differentiation. The process by which stem cells develop into different types of specialized cells such as skin, heart, muscle, and blood cells.
    • Cellulite. Fat deposited in pockets just below the surface of the skin around the hips, thighs, and buttocks.
    • Central nervous system (cns). The central nervous system (cns) is composed of the brain and spinal cord. The brain receives sensory information 1034 glossary from the nerves that pass through the spinal cord, as well as other nerves such as those from sensory organs involved in sight and smell. Once received, the brain processes the sensory signals and initiates responses.
    • Ceruloplasmin. A blue copper containing dehydrogenase protein found in serum that is apparently involved in copper detoxification and storage.
    • Cerumen. The waxy substance secreted by glands in the external ear canal.
    • Chelating agent. An organic compound in which atoms form more than one bond with metals in solution.
    • Chemotherapy. Treatment of cancer with drugs.
    • Cholelithiasis. The medical term for gallstones.
    • Cholesterol.A waxy substance made by the liver and also acquired through diet. High levels in the blood may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.
    • Choline. A compound found in egg yolks and legumes that is essential to liver function.
    • Chondroitin sulfate. A compound found naturally in the body that is part of a large protein molecule (proteoglycan) helping cartilage to retain its elasticity.
    • Chromium. An essential mineral that must be obtained from the diet and is important for the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates and for insulin metabolism, as well as for many enzymatic reactions in the body.
    • Chronic disease. An illness or medical condition that lasts over a long period of time and sometimes causes a long-term change in the body.
    • Chronic renal disease. The permanent loss of kidney function.
    • Chronic. Chronic refers to a symptom or disease that continues or persists over an extended period of time.
    • Chylomicronemia. An excess of chylomicrons in the blood.
    • Chylomicrons. Intestinal triglycerides.
    • Cirrhosis. A life-threatening disease that scars liver tissue and damages its cells. It severely affects liver function, preventing it from removing toxins like alcohol and drugs from the blood.
    • Cis formation. The arrangement of atoms where hydrogen atoms sit on the same side of the carbon to carbon double bond.
    • Claudication.Tiredness and pain in the leg muscles that occur when walking and disappear with rest.
    • Cloze tests. Tests of language proficiency and what they measure.
    • Cochrane reviews. Evaluations based on the best available information about healthcare interventions. They explore the evidence for and against the effectiveness and appropriateness of treatments in specific circumstances.
    • Coenzyme. Also called a cofactor, a small nonprotein molecule that binds to an enzyme and catalyzes (stimulates) enzyme-mediated reactions.
    • Cofactor. A compound that is essential for the activity of an enzyme.
    • Cognitive behavioral therapy (cbt).An approach to psychotherapy based on modifying the patient’s dayto-day thoughts and behaviors, with the aim of changing long-standing emotional patterns. Some people consider cbt a useful or even necessary tool in maintaining longterm weight reduction.
    • Collagen. A long fiber-like protein found in skin, bones, blood vessels, and connective tissue such as tendons and ligaments.
    • Colon polyps. Extra tissue that grows in the colon.
    • Colon. Part of the large intestine, located in the abdominal cavity. It consists of the ascending colon, the transverse colon, the descending colon, and the sigmoid colon.
    • Colonic. Sometimes called colonic hydrotherapy, a colonic is a procedure similar to an enema in which the patient’s colon is irrigated (washed out) with large amounts of water. Some people undergoing a detoxification diet have one or more colonics to remove fecal matter remaining in the intestines during the diet; however, this procedure is discouraged by mainstream physicians because of its potential risks to health.
    • Complementary medicine. Includes many of the same treatments used in alternative medicine, but uses them to supplement conventional drug and therapy treatments, rather than to replace conventional medicine.
    • Conditioning. In psychology, the process of acquiring, developing, or establishing new associations and responses in a person or animal. The author of the shangri-la diet believes that modern food products condition people to make an association between the flavors in the foods and calorie intake.
    • Conjugated linolenic acid. A fatty acid suggested to have health benefits.
    • Constipation.Abnormally delayed or infrequent passage of feces. It may be either functional (related to failure to move the bowels) or organic (caused by another disease or disorder).
    • Contamination. The undesired occurrence of harmful microorganisms or substances in food.
    • Controlled fatigue training (cft). The warrior diet’s term for a structured exercise program that trains the body to resist fatigue as well as improve strength, speed, and other performance capabilities.
    • Conventional medicine. Mainstream or western pharmaceutical-based medicine practiced by medical doctors, doctors of osteopathy, and other licensed health care professionals.
    • Coronary artery.The arteries that supply blood to the tissues of the heart from the aorta.
    • Coronary heart disease. A progressive reduction of blood supply to the heart muscle due to narrowing or blocking of a coronary artery.
    • Cortisol. Hydrocortisone; a glucocorticoid that is produced by the adrenal cortex and regulates various metabolic processes and has anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties. Blood levels may become elevated in response to stress.
    • Couscous. A north african food consisting of steamed semolina—milled durum wheat—that is also used to make pasta.
    • Cran-water. A diuretic drink consisting of one part unsweetened cranberry juice in four parts filtered water.
    • Creatine. An organic acid formed and stored in the body that supplies energy to muscle cells. Meat and fish are good dietary sources of creatine.
    • Cretinism. Arrested mental and physical development.
    • Crohn’s disease. Inflammatory disease that usually occurs in the last section of the small intestine (ileum), causing swelling in the intestines. It can also occur in the large intestine.
    • Cross-contamination. The transfer of harmful bacteria from one food to another, or also from hands to food.
    • Cytochromes. Complex proteins within cell membranes that carry out electron transport. Grapefruit juice interferes with the functioning of an enzyme belonging to the cytochrome p-450 group.
    • Caffeine
    • Caffeine is a natural stimulant found in coffee, tea, chocolate and some energy drinks. As a stimulant caffeine may increase heart rate and alertness but can also cause insomnia and restlessness. Caffeine also acts as a diuretic and can cause dehydration and headaches.
    • Calcium
    • Calorie
    • Calorie balance
    • Calorie balance the balance between calories you get from eating and drinking and those you use up through physical activity and body processes like breathing, digesting food, and, in children, growing.
    • Calorie balance—the balance between calories consumed through eating and drinking and calories expended through physical activity and metabolic processes.
    • Calories
    • Calories are a measurement of energy. One calorie is equivalent to 4.18 kj.
    • Calorie (cal-or-ee) a unit of energy in food. Carbohydrates, fats, protein, and alcohol in the foods and drinks we eat provide food energy or “Calories”. Carbohydrates and proteins provide 4 calories per gram, fat has 9 calories per gram, and alcohol has 7 calories per gram.
    • Calorie—a unit commonly used to measure energy content of foods and beverages as well as energy use (expenditure) by the body. A kilocalorie is equal to the amount of energy (heat) required to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water 1 degree centigrade. Energy is required to sustain the body’s various functions, including metabolic processes and physical activity. Carbohydrate, fat, protein, and alcohol provide all of the energy supplied by foods and beverages. If not specified explicitly, references to “calories” refer to “kilocalories.”
    • Carbohydrate
    • Carbohydrate, total
    • Carbohydrates are the most readily converted energy source. Good sources include rice, bread, cereal, legumes, fruits and vegetables which also provide important nutrients. Additional carbohydrate sources include refined sugars, which do provide instant energy but unfortunately don’t offer the nutrients that the more complex sources of carbohydrates do.
    • Carbohydrates—one of the macronutrients and a source of energy. They include sugars, starches, and fiber:
    • Carbohydrate (kar-bow-hy-drate) a “Carb” is a major source of energy for your body. Your digestive system changes carbohydrates into blood glucose (sugar). Your body uses this sugar to make energy for cells, tissues, and organs, and stores any extra sugar in your liver and muscles for when it is needed. If there is more sugar than the body can use, the liver may also break the sugar down further and store it as body fat.
    • Cardiovascular disease
    • Cardiovascular disease (cvd)—heart disease as well as diseases of the blood vessel system (arteries, capillaries, veins) that can lead to heart attack, chest pain (angina), or stroke.
    • Carotenoids are the orange, yellow and red pigments found in plant tissue that allow it to carry out photosynthesis. When eaten, these pigments provide vitamins and antioxidants that have many health benefits in humans. Beta-carotenes are a form of vitamin a.
    • Carotenoids/carotenes
    • Catabolism
    • Catabolism is the breaking down of a larger molecule into a smaller molecule. For example the breakdown of carbohydrates to release energy.
    • Cell membrane
    • Cellulose
    • Cellulose is an insoluble fibre that makes up the framework of plant cell walls.
    • Central obesity
    • Central obesity refers to the excess fat stored around the abdominal area including around the vital organs such as heart and liver.
    • Chemicals produced by glands in the body and circulated
    • Children grow at different rates at different times, so it is not always easy to tell if a child is overweight. Bmi charts for children compare their height and weight to other children of their same sex and age. For children ages 2 to19, those who are at or above the 85th percentile are considered overweight. Those who are at or above the 95th percentile are considered obese.
    • Cholesterol
    • Cholesterol found in foods of animal origin, including meat,
    • Cholesterol is a sterol which is made by the body and is found naturally in animal products such as meat, eggs, poultry and dairy foods.
    • Cholesterol that travels in the serum of the blood as
    • Cholesterol, blood
    • Cholesterol, dietary
    • Cholesterol (ko-les-te-rol) cholesterol is a fat-like substance that is made by your body and found naturally in animal foods such as dairy products, eggs, meat, poultry, and seafood. Foods high in cholesterol include dairy fats, egg yolks, and organ meats such as liver. Cholesterol is needed to carry out functions such as hormone and vitamin production. It is carried through the blood by [lipoproteins].
    • Cholesterol—a natural sterol present in all animal tissues. Free cholesterol is a component of cell membranes and serves as a precursor for steroid hormones (estrogen, testosterone, aldosterone), and for bile acids. Humans are able to synthesize sufficient cholesterol to meet biologic requirements, and there is no evidence for a dietary requirement for cholesterol.
    • Chondroitin sulfate derived from animal or shark cartilage can be taken as a dietary supplement by people with oa.
    • Cognition
    • Cognition refers to mental functions such as the ability to think, reason, and remember.
    • Compared to overweight or obese, a body weight that is less likely to be linked with any weight-related health problems such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, or others. A body mass index (bmi) of 18.5 up to 25 refers to a healthy weight, though not all individuals with a bmi in this range may be at a healthy level of body fat; they may have more body fat tissue and less muscle. A bmi of 25 up to 30 refers to overweight and a bmi of 30 or higher refers to obese.
    • Compementary proteins
    • Complementary proteins are the proteins supplied by different foods that combine together to supply all the essential amino acids. The proteins present in one food complement the proteins in another food to supply any essential amino acids that the other may be missing.
    • Complete proteins
    • Complete proteins are foods that contain all the essential amino acids in levels required by the body and do not require other foods to supply any.
    • Complex carbohydrates (starches)
    • Composed of one unit (a monosaccharide, such as
    • Compounds composed of long chains of glucose molecules.
    • Compounds of protein that carry fats and fat-like substances, such as cholesterol, in the blood.
    • Consumed (racc) for foods that have similar dietary
    • Cup-equivalent (cup-eq or c-eq)—the amount of a food or beverage product that is considered equal to 1 cup from the vegetables, fruits, or dairy food groups. A cup-eq for some foods or beverages may differ from a measured cup in volume because the foods have been concentrated (such as raisins or tomato paste), the foods are airy in their raw form and do not compress well into a cup (such as salad greens), or the foods are measured in a different form (such as cheese).
    • Glossary of diet and nutritional terms D

    • D deamination. Removal of an nh2 group from a molecule deep vein thrombosis (dvt). Blockage of the deep veins; particularly common in the leg.
    • Dash eating plan—the dash (dietary approaches to stop hypertension) eating plan exemplifies healthy eating. It was designed to increase intake of foods expected to lower blood pressure while being heart healthy and meeting institute of medicine (iom) nutrient recommendations. It is available at specific calorie levels. It was adapted from the dietary pattern developed for the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (dash) research trials. In the trials, the dash dietary pattern lowered blood pressure and ldl-cholesterol levels, resulting in reduced cardiovascular disease risk. The dash eating plan is low in saturated fats and rich in potassium, calcium, and magnesium, as well as fiber and protein. It also is lower in sodium than the typical american diet, and includes menus with two levels of sodium, 2,300 and 1,500 mg per day. It meets the dietary reference intakes for all essential nutrients and stays within limits for overconsumed nutrients, while allowing adaptable food choices based on food preferences, cost, and availability.
    • Degenerative disorders. A condition leading to progressive loss of function.
    • Dehydration. A condition of water loss caused by either inadequate intake of water or excessive loss of water as through vomiting or diarrhea.
    • Demulcent. A substance that soothes irritated tissue, especially mucous membranes.
    • Deoxyribonucleic acid (dna). A nucleic acid molecule in a twisted double strand, called a double helix, that is the major component of chromosomes.
    • Dermatologist. A physician that specializes in conditions of the skin.
    • Desiccation. Drying or dehydrating food as a method of preservation.
    • Detoxification diets. A group of diets that are followed in order to purify the body of heavy metals, toxic chemicals, harmful microbes, the waste products of digestion, and other substances held to be harmful.
    • Detoxification. Detox; cleansing; to remove toxins or poisons from the body.
    • Dha. A long-chain omega-3 fatty acid found primarily in oily fish. It is important for the development of the brain and the retina of the eye.
    • Diabetes mellitus. A condition in which the body either does not make or cannot respond to the hormone insulin. As a result, the body cannot use glucose (sugar). There are two types, type 1 or juvenile onset and type 2 or adult onset.
    • Diabetic peripheral neuropathy. A condition where the sensitivity of nerves to pain, temperature, and pressure is dulled, particularly in the legs and feet.
    • Diabetic retinopathy. A condition where the tiny blood vessels to the retina, the tissues that sense light at the back of the eye, are damaged, leading to blurred vision, sudden blindness, or black spots, lines, or flashing lights in the field of vision.
    • Dialysis. A method of artificial kidney function used to remove waste products or other substances from the patient’s body fluids. In the case of patients with msud, dialysis may be used to remove bcaas from the patient’s body during an acute episode requiring hospitalization.
    • Diaphoretic. An agent that promotes sweating.
    • Dietary approaches to stop hypertension (dash). Study in 1997 that showed a diet rich in fruits, vegetables and low fat dairy foods, with reduced saturated and total fat can substantially lower blood pressure.
    • Dietary deficiency. Lack or shortage of certain vitamins or minerals within the diet that can result in illnesses.
    • Dietary fiber. Also known as roughage or bulk.
    • Dietary guidelines for americans. Dietary guidelines published every five years since 1980 by the department of health and human services (hhs) and the u.S. Department of agriculture (usda). They provide authoritative advice for people two years and older about how good dietary habits can promote health and reduce risk for major chronic diseases. They serve as the basis for federal food and nutrition education programs.
    • Dietary supplement. A product, such as a vitamin, mineral, herb, amino acid, or enzyme, that is intended to be consumed in addition to an individual’s diet with the expectation that it will improve health.
    • Dietitian. A health care professional who specializes in individual or group nutritional planning, public education in nutrition, or research in food science.
    • Digestion. The process by which food is chemically converted into nutrients that can be absorbed and used by the body.
    • Digestive enzymes. Molecules that catalyze the breakdown of large molecules (usually food) into smaller molecules.
    • Digestive system. Organs and paths responsible for processing food in the body. These are the mouth, the esophagus, the stomach, the liver, the gallbladder, the pancreas, the small intestine, the large intestine, and the rectum.
    • Digestive tract. The tube connecting and including the organs and paths responsible for processing food in the body. These are the mouth, the esophagus, the stomach, the liver, the gallbladder, the pancreas, the small intestine, the large intestine, and the rectum.
    • Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (benadryl).
    • Disaccharide. Any of a class of sugars, including lactose and sucrose, that are composed of two monosaccharides.
    • Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (dmards). A class of prescription medications given to patients with rheumatoid arthritis that suppress the immune system and slow the progression of ra.
    • Distractibility. Inability to concentrate or attend to the task on hand; inattentiveness.
    • Diuretic. A substance that removes water from the body by increasing urine production.
    • Diverticula. Small pouches in the muscular wall of the large intestine.
    • Diverticular disorders. Disorders that involve the development of diverticula.
    • Diverticulitis.Inflammation of the small pouches (diverticula) that can form in the weakened muscular wall of the large intestine.
    • Dna carries genetic information and is the basis of life.
    • Dopamine. A neurotransmitter and precursor of norepinephrine; found in high concentrations in the brain.
    • Doping.The use of performance-enhancing drugs in sports competition, including anabolic steroids and other substances banned by most international sports organizations. The english word is thought to come from the dutch dop, which was the name of an alcoholic beverage drunk by zulu warriors before a battle.
    • Duodenum. The first section of the small intestine, extending from the stomach to the jejunum, the next section of the small intestine.
    • Dysbiosis. The general term to describe the overgrowth of undesirable microflora in the intestines.
    • Dyslexia. An inherent dysfunction affecting the language centers of the brain that results in difficulties with reading and writing.
    • Dyslipidemia. A disorder of lipoprotein metabolism, including lipoprotein overproduction or deficiency. Dyslipidemias may be manifested by elevation of the total cholesterol, the ‘‘bad’’ low-density lipoprotein (ldl) cholesterol and the triglyceride concentrations, and a decrease in the ‘‘good’’ highdensity lipoprotein (hdl) cholesterol concentration in the blood.
    • Dyspraxia. A developmental disorder that affects coordination and movement.
    • Daily value
    • Dangerous condition in which victims lose interest in eating and become dangerously thin; usually associated with false beliefs about being too fat.
    • Dehydration
    • Dehydration occurs when body water loss exceeds intake. This generally occurs due to insufficient water consumption or increased water loss due to vomiting, diarrhoea or excessive sweating. Symptoms include thirst, headaches, dry lips, lack of concentration. Mild dehydration can occur before you notice any symptoms.
    • Diabetes
    • Diabetes mellitus
    • Diabetes mellitus is a disease caused by the inability of the body to control the amount of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Type 1 diabetes results from the bodys inability to produce insulin in the pancreas and type 2 diabetes is due to the body cells developing resistance to insulin.
    • Diabetes (dye-ah-bee-teez) a person with this disease has blood glucose, or sugar, levels that are above normal levels. Glucose comes from the foods you eat. Insulin is a hormone that helps the glucose get into your cells to give them energy. Diabetes occurs when the body does not make enough insulin or does not use the insulin it makes. Over time, having too much sugar in your blood may cause serious problems. It may damage your eyes, kidneys, and nerves, and may cause heart disease and stroke. Regular physical activity, weight control, and healthy eating may help you control your diabetes. You should also follow your health care provider’s advice and, when asked to, monitor your blood sugar level and take prescribed medication. [also see gestational diabetes, type 1 diabetes, and type 2 diabetes.]
    • Diabetes—a disorder of metabolism—the way the body uses digested food (specifically carbohydrate) for growth and energy. In diabetes, the pancreas either produces little or no insulin (a hormone that helps glucose, the body’s main source of fuel, get into cells), or the cells do not respond appropriately to the insulin that is produced, which causes too much glucose to be released in the blood. The three main types of diabetes are type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. If not controlled, diabetes can lead to serious complications.
    • Diet
    • Dietary approaches to stop hypertension
    • Dietary reference intakes (dris)—a set of nutrient-based reference values that are quantitative estimates of nutrient intakes to be used for planning and assessing diets for healthy people. Dris expand on the periodic reports called recommended dietary allowances (rdas), which were first published by the institute of medicine in 1941.
    • Dietary cholesterol—cholesterol found in foods of animal origin, including meat, seafood, poultry, eggs, and dairy products. Plant foods, such as grains, vegetables, fruits, and oils do not contain dietary cholesterol.
    • Dietary fiber consists of non-digestible carbohydrates and
    • Dietary sodium also called “Salt”, sodium helps your nerves and muscles work properly. Table salt is made up of sodium and chloride. Your kidneys control how much sodium is in your blood, releasing it when needed and flushing out any excess. If too much sodium builds up in your blood, this may raise your blood pressure. High blood pressure is linked to serious health problems. Federal dietary guidelines https://www.Health.Gov/dietaryguidelines/ external link recommend that most people limit their intake of sodium to less than 2,300 milligrams (mg) a day (less than 1 teaspoon of salt).
    • Diet what a person eats and drinks. Any type of eating plan.
    • Diuretic
    • Glossary of diet and nutritional terms E

    • E edema. Abnormal and excessive accumulation of fluid in body tissues or certain cavities of the body.
    • Eicosanoids. Hormone-like compounds made from fatty acids. Eicosanoids are thought to affect blood pressure, blood clotting, and inflammation.
    • Electrolyte. Any of several chemicals dissolved in blood and other body fluids that are capable of conducting an electric current. The most important electrolytes in humans and other animals are sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, phosphate, and hydrogen carbonate.
    • Electron. A component of an atom or molecule.
    • Elimination diet. A diet in which the patient excludes a specific food (or group of foods) for a period of time in order to determine whether the food is responsible for symptoms of an allergy or other disorder. Elimination diets are also known as food challenge diets.
    • Emetic. A medicine that induces nausea and vomiting.
    • Emollient. An agent that softens and soothes the skin when applied locally.
    • Emotional eating. Term for eating to alter mood or relieve stress, boredom, or loneliness.
    • Endocrinologist. A medical specialist who treats diseases of the endocrine (glands) system, including diabetes.
    • Endogenous. With no apparent external cause, originating within the organism or tissue.
    • Endoscope. A special tube-shaped instrument that allows a doctor to examine the interior of or perform surgery inside the stomach or intestines. An examination of the digestive system with this instrument is called an endoscopy.
    • Enema. The injection of liquid through the anus into the rectum in order to soften hardened stools.
    • Energy balance. The number of calories burned in an hour versus the number of calories taken in.
    • Energy density.The calories in a given portion of food.
    • Enrichment.The addition of vitamins and minerals to improve the nutritional content of a food.
    • Enteropathy. A disease of the intestinal tract.
    • Enzyme. A protein that change the rate of a chemical reaction within the body without themselves being used up in the reaction.
    • Ephedrine. Central nervous system stimulant that that increases serum levels of norepinephrine. The herbs ma huang, ephedra sinica and sida cordifolia contain ephedrine, which structurally is similar to amphetamines.
    • Epi-pen. A the brand name of the auto–injectable form of epinephrine. Used to stop or prevent anaphylaxis after expose to an allergen.
    • Epidemiologist. A scientist or medical specialist who studies the origins and spread of diseases in populations.
    • Epigenetic. A modification of gene expression that is independent of the dna sequence of the gene.
    • Epilepsy. A disorder of the brain that results in recurrent, unprovoked seizures.
    • Epinephrine. (also called adrenaline) a hormone released by the body during times of stress, it increase heart rate and blood pressure. As a medication, it may be used to constrict blood vessels, relax breathing tubes, and as a treatment for anaphylaxis.
    • Epithelial cell.Sheet of cells lining organs throughout the body.
    • Erectile dysfunction. The inability to get or maintain an erection.
    • Ergogenic.Enhancing physical performance, particularly during athletic activity.
    • Erythropoetin (epo). A hormone produced by the kidneys that regulates the production of red blood cells. It is sometimes used by athletes to increase the oxygen-carrying capacity of their blood.
    • Esophagitis. Inflammation of the esophagus.
    • Esophagus. Muscular tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach.
    • Essential amino acid. An amino acid that is necessary for health but that cannot be made by the body and must be acquired through diet.
    • Essential fatty acid. A type of fat that is necessary for the normal function of the brain and body and that the body is unable to produce itself, making them ‘essential’ to be taken through the diet and / or supplements.
    • Estrogen. A hormone produced by the ovaries and testes. It stimulates the development of secondary sexual characteristics and induces menstruation in women.
    • Ethanol.The chemical name of beverage alcohol.
    • Etiology. The cause of a disease or medical condition.
    • Evening primrose oil. Oil extracted from the seeds of the evening primrose, oenothera biennis; contains gla.
    • Excipient.An inert substance, such as certain gums or starches, used to make drugs easier to take by allowing them to be formulated into tablets or liquids. Some artificial sweeteners are used as excipients.
    • Exercise psychologist. A health professional who specializes in behaviors related to physical activity.
    • Expectorant. A substance that stimulates removal of mucus from the lungs.
    • Extract. A compound in which something has been taken out so that it is now in a more purified state.
    • Extrahepatic. Originating or occurring outside the liver.
    • Eating behaviors—individual behaviors that affect food and beverage choices and intake patterns, such as what, where, when, why, and how much people eat.
    • Eating pattern (also called “dietary pattern”)—the combination of foods and beverages that constitute an individual’s complete dietary intake over time. This may be a description of a customary way of eating or a description of a combination of foods recommended for consumption. Specific examples include usda food patterns and the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (dash) eating plan. (see usda food patterns and dash eating plan.)
    • Edema is a symptom of a number of different kidney, liver, and circulatory disorders and is commonly treated with diuretics.
    • Electrolytes
    • Electrolytes are minerals which are needed to keep the body’s balance of fluids at a healthy level and to maintain normal functions, such as heart rhythm, muscle contraction, and nerve impulse transmission. Electrolytes include potassium, sodium, calcium, and magnesium.
    • Emulsifiers
    • Emulsifiers are substances that have both water-soluble and fat-soluble portions. This feature allows oils and water to combine in a solution.
    • Endosperm
    • Endosperm is the inner part of the grain. It contains carbohydrate, protein and b vitamins.
    • Energy
    • Energy drink
    • Energy balance
    • Energy drink—a beverage that contains caffeine as an ingredient, along with other ingredients, such as taurine, herbal supplements, vitamins, and added sugars. It is usually marketed as a product that can improve perceived energy, stamina, athletic performance, or concentration.
    • Energy expenditure
    • Energy expenditure the amount of energy that you use measured in calories. You use calories to breathe, send blood through your blood vessels, digest food, maintain posture, and be physically active.
    • Energy is the fuel we need from food to function and be active. Energy requirements vary depending on your age, body size and physical activity. It’s important to monitor your energy consumption as too much energy can lead to weight gain. Fat, protein and carbohydrates all provide energy (known as kilojoules or calories) in the foods we eat. Fats provide more energy per gram than protein or carbohydrates.
    • Enrichment
    • Enrichment of refined grains is not mandatory; however,
    • Enrichment—the addition of specific nutrients (I.E., iron, thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin) to refined grain products in order to replace losses of the nutrients that occur during processing. Enrichment of refined grains is not mandatory; however, those that are labeled as enriched (e.G., enriched flour) must meet the standard of identity for enrichment set by the fda. When cereal grains are labeled as enriched, it is mandatory that they be fortified with folic acid. (the addition of specific nutrients to whole-grain products is referred to as fortification; see fortification.)
    • Enzyme
    • Enzymes
    • Enzymes are substances that speed up chemical reactions. For example, in our body some enzymes help break down the food we eat and release energy.
    • Ergogenic aids
    • Ergogenic aids are substances taken to improve physical or mental performance. There are several types of aids ranging from the legal such as creatine and caffeine to the illegal such as steroids and blood doping.
    • Essential amino acidsessential amino acids are the amino acids that the body cannot synthesise itself in sufficient quantities for physiological needs and must therefore be acquired from the diet. There are 8 essential amino acids required for adults and 9 for children.
    • Essential fatty acids
    • Essential fatty acids are the fatty acids that the body cannot synthesise itself in sufficient quantities for physiological needs and must therefore be acquired from the diet. There are 2 essential fatty acids; linoleic acid which is an omega-6 and linolenic acid which is an omega-3 fat.
    • Essential nutrient—a vitamin, mineral, fatty acid, or amino acid required for normal body functioning that either cannot be synthesized by the body at all, or cannot be synthesized in amounts adequate for good health, and thus must be obtained from a dietary source. Other food components, such as dietary fiber, while not essential, also are considered to be nutrients.
    • Estimated average requirements (ear)—the average daily nutrient intake level estimated to meet the requirement of half the healthy individuals in a particular life stage and sex group.
    • Examples of foods containing starch include beans and
    • Exercise a type of physical activity that is planned and structured. Exercise is done on purpose to improve or maintain health, physical fitness, and/or physical performance.
    • Existing report—an existing systematic review, meta-analysis, or report by a federal agency or leading scientific organization examined by the 2015 dietary guidelines advisory committee in its review of the scientific evidence. A systematic process was used by the advisory committee to assess the quality and comprehensiveness of the review for addressing the question of interest. (see nutrition evidence library (nel) systematic review.)

      Glossary of diet and nutritional terms F

    • F factory farming. A term that refers to the application of techniques of mass production borrowed from industry to the raising of livestock, poultry, fish, and crops. It is also known as industrial agriculture.
    • Famine. Extended period of food shortage.
    • Fast. A period of at least 24 hours in which a person eats nothing and drinks only water.
    • Fat-soluble vitamin. A vitamin that dissolves in and can be stored in body fat or the liver.
    • Fat. A nutrient that the body uses as an energy source. Fats produce 9 calories per gram.
    • Fatty acid. A chemical unit that occurs naturally, either singly or combined, and consists of strongly linked carbon and hydrogen atoms in a chain-like structure. The end of the chain contains a reactive acid group made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
    • Fda. The food and drug administration is the united states department of health and human services agency responsible for ensuring the safety and effectiveness of all drugs, biologics, vaccines, and medical devices.
    • Fda. When cereal grains are labeled as enriched, it is
    • Fecal. Relating to feces.
    • Feces. Waste product of digestion formed in the large intestine. About 75% of its mass is water, the 1039 glossary remainder is protein, fat, undigested roughage, dried digestive juices, dead cells, and bacteria.
    • Female athlete triad. A group of three disorders often found together in female athletes, consisting of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis.
    • Fenluramine. An anorectic drug formerly marketed under the brand name pondimin.
    • Fermentation. A reaction performed by yeast or bacteria to make alcohol.
    • Ferritin. Iron is stored in the body, mainly in the liver, spleen and bone marrow, as ferritin.
    • Fetus. Unborn offspring.
    • Fiber.A complex carbohydrate not digested by the human body. Plants are the source of fiber.
    • Fibromyalgia. Widespread musculoskeletal pain and fatigue disorder for which the cause is still unknown.
    • Fistula. Abnormal, usually ulcerous duct between two internal organs or between an internal organ and the skin. When open at only one end it is called an incomplete fistula or sinus. The most common sites of fistula are the rectum and the urinary organs.
    • Flatulence. The medical term for intestinal gas expelled through the anus.
    • Flaxseed. Linseed; the seed of flax, linum usitatissimum, used as a source of oil for treating inflammation of the respiratory, intestinal, and urinary tracts, and as a dietary supplement.
    • Fluoxetine. An antidepressant drug, sold under the brand name prozac.
    • Foie gras. Liver of a duck or goose that has been specially fattened. It can be sold whole or prepared as pate or mousse.
    • Folate. One of the b vitamins, also called folic acid.
    • Folic acid. Folate; a b-complex vitamin that is required for normal production of red blood cells and other physiological processes; abundant in green, leafy vegetables, liver, kidney, dried beans, and mushrooms.
    • Food additive. Defined by the federal food, drug, and cosmetic act (fd&c) of 1938 as ‘‘any substance, the intended use of which results directly or indirectly, in its becoming a component or otherwise affecting the characteristics of food.’’ food allergy. A hypersensitivity reaction to particular food proteins involving the immune system.
    • Food fortification. The public health policy of adding essential trace elements and vitamins to foodstuffs to ensure that minimum dietary requirements are met.
    • Food stamp program (fsp). The food stamp program provides a basic safety net to millions of people. The program was born in the late 1930s, with a limited program in effect from 1939 to 1943. It was revived as a pilot program in 1961 and was extended nationwide in 1974. The current program was implemented in 1977 with the goal of alleviating hunger and malnutrition by permitting low-income households to obtain a more nutritious diet through normal channels of trade.
    • Foodborne illness.Illness caused by pathogenic bacteria transmitted to humans by food.
    • Fortification. The addition of vitamins and minerals to improve the nutritional content of a food.
    • Fredrickson classification. A classification system of hyperlipidemias by ultracentrifugation followed by electrophoresis that uses plasma appearance, triglyceride values, and total cholesterol values. There are five types: I, ii, iii, iv, and v.
    • Free radical. An unstable, highly reactive molecule that occurs naturally as a result of cellular metabolism, but can be increased by environmental toxins, ultraviolet and nuclear radiation. Free radicals damage cellular dna and are thought to play a role in aging, cancer, and other diseases. Free radicals can be neutralized by antioxidants.
    • Free-range. Allowed to forage and move around with relative freedom. Free-range chickens are typically raised on small farms or suburban back yards, and are often considered pets as well as egg producers.
    • Freegan. A vegan who obtains food outside the mainstream economic system, most often by growing it, bartering for it, or scavenging for it in restaurant or supermarket trash bins.
    • Fructose. A simple sugar that occurs naturally in sucrose and fruit. It can be added in combination with sucrose in the form of high-fructose corn syrup (hfcs) to sweeten foods because it is sweeter than sucrose. Large amounts of fructose can cause diarrhea in infants and young children.
    • Fruitarian. A vegetarian who eats only plantbased products (fruits, seeds, and nuts) that can be obtained without killing the plant.
    • Functional food. Also called nutraceuticals, these products are marketed as having health benefits or disease-preventing qualities beyond their basic supply of energy and nutrients. Often these health benefits come in the form of added herbs, minerals, vitamins, etc.
    • Fundoplication. A surgical procedure that increases pressure on the les by stretching and wrapping the upper part of the stomach around the sphincter.
    • Fad diets
    • Fad diets are fashionable diets that generally do not result in long-term weight loss. Fad diets are often dangerous to your health if undertaken for a long duration as they often eliminate many important food groups from your diet. Common fad diets include the atkins diet, the southbeach diet and the cabbage soup diet.
    • Fast food
    • Fat
    • Fat (saturated)
    • Fat composed of unsaturated fatty acids that contain one or more double bonds in which the hydrogen ions attached to the carbon atoms at the double bond are on opposite sides of the molecule. Trans fat is produced when liquid fat (oil) is turned into solid fat through a chemical process called hydrogenation (see definition). Eating a large amount of trans fatty acids can raise blood cholesterol and the risk of heart disease.
    • Fat tissue in the body.
    • Fat, monounsaturated
    • Fat, polyunsaturated
    • Fat, saturated
    • Fat, solid
    • Fat, total
    • Fat, trans
    • Fats
    • Fats (or lipids) are an essential source of energy in the diet as they:
    • Fats that are in foods are combinations of monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, and saturated fatty acids. Monounsaturated fat is found in canola oil, olives and olive oil, nuts, seeds, and avocados. Eating food that has more monounsaturated fat instead of saturated fat may help lower cholesterol and reduce heart disease risk. However, it has the same number of calories as other types of fat, and may still contribute to weight gain if eaten in excess.
    • Fats that are liquid at room temperature. Oils come from
    • Fats that are usually not liquid at room temperature. Solid
    • Fats—one of the macronutrients and a source of energy. (see solid fats and oils.)
    • Fatty acids that have no double bonds. Saturated fats are
    • Fatty acids that have one double bond and are usually
    • Fatty acids that have two or more double bonds and are
    • Fat a major source of energy in the diet, fat helps the body absorb fat-soluble vitamins, such as vitamins a, d, e, and k. Some kinds of fats, especially saturated fats and trans fatty acids, may raise blood cholesterol and increase the risk for heart disease. Other fats, such as unsaturated fats, do not raise blood cholesterol. Fats that are in foods are combinations of monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, and saturated fatty acids.
    • Fiber (dietary)
    • Fiber, dietary
    • Fiber—total fiber is the sum of dietary fiber and functional fiber. Dietary fiber consists of nondigestible carbohydrates and lignin that are intrinsic and intact in plants (I.E., the fiber naturally occurring in foods). Functional fiber consists of isolated, nondigestible carbohydrates that have beneficial physiological effects in humans. Functional fibers are either extracted from natural sources or are synthetically manufactured and added to foods, beverages, and supplements.
    • Fibre
    • Fibre plays a key role in preventing constipation, cancer and heart disease. Wholegrain breads, cereals, legumes, rice, pasta, fruit and vegetables are good sources of fibre. There are a number of different types of dietary fibre. The three major types are soluble fibre, insoluble fibre and resistant starch. (although it is not actually a fibre, resistant starch is now being recognised as a member of the ‘fibre family’ due to its similar effects on the body.)
    • Flavonoids
    • Flavonoids are water soluble plant pigments and are a subgroup of the polyphenol group of plant compounds. Flavonoids are believed to function as antioxidants, and are produced by plants to assist in photosynthesis.
    • Flavours
    • Flavours are added to processed food to enhance the taste. There are 3 main types:
    • Flexibility the range of motion possible at a joint. Flexibility exercises enhance the ability of a joint to move through its full range of motion.
    • Folate (folic acid)
    • Folate is a b vitamin, essential for all the family, as it has an important role in the development of all body cells. It is especially important during periods of rapid growth. All women planning pregnancy or who might become pregnant should increase their intake of folate. This is because an adequate folate intake in the month before and the first three months of pregnancy may reduce the risk of babies being born with certain birth defects, such as spina bifida. Good sources of folate include fortified breakfast cereals and breads, dark green leafy vegetables, some fruits and juices (e.G. Bananas, oranges and rockmelon), legumes (e.G. Chickpeas) and nuts (such as peanuts).
    • Food groups
    • Food access—ability to obtain and maintain levels of sufficient amounts of healthy, safe, and affordable food for all family members in various settings including where they live, learn, work and play. Food access is often measured by distance to a store or the number of stores in an area; individual-level resources such as family income or vehicle availability; and neighborhood-level indicators of resources, such as average income of the neighborhood and the availability of public transportation.
    • Food and nutrition policies—regulations, laws, policymaking actions, or formal or informal rules established by formal organizations or government units. Food and nutrition policies are those that influence food settings and/or eating behaviors to improve food and/or nutrition choices, and potentially, health outcomes (e.G., body weight).
    • Food aversions
    • Food aversions are a strong desire to avoid certain foods. This is not a food allergy or intolerance but may come from an association to an unpleasant event in the past with a certain food.
    • Food categories—a method of grouping similar foods in their as-consumed forms, for descriptive purposes. The usda’s agricultural research service (ars) has created 150 mutually exclusive food categories to account for each food or beverage item reported in what we eat in america (wweia), the food intake survey component of the national health and nutrition examination survey (for more information, visit: http://seprl.Ars.Usda.Gov/services/docs.Htm?Docid=23429). Examples of wweia food categories include soups, nachos, and yeast breads. In contrast to food groups, items are not disaggregated into their component parts for assignment to food categories. For example, all pizzas are put into the pizza category.
    • Food groups—a method of grouping similar foods for descriptive and guidance purposes. Food groups in the usda food patterns are defined as vegetables, fruits, grains, dairy, and protein foods. Some of these groups are divided into subgroups, such as dark-green vegetables or whole grains, which may have intake goals or limits. Foods are grouped within food groups based on their similarity in nutritional composition and other dietary benefits. For assignment to food groups, mixed dishes are disaggregated into their major component parts.
    • Food hub—a community space anchored by a food store with adjacent social and financial services where businesses or organizations can actively manage the aggregation, distribution, and marketing of source-identified food products to strengthen their ability to satisfy wholesale, retail, and institutional demand.
    • Food intolerance
    • Food pattern modeling—the process of developing and adjusting daily intake amounts from food categories or groups to meet specific criteria, such as meeting nutrient intake goals, limiting nutrients or other food components, or varying proportions or amounts of specific food categories or groups. This methodology includes using current food consumption data to determine the mix and proportions of foods to include in each group, using current food composition data to select a nutrient-dense representative for each food, calculating nutrient profiles for each food group using these nutrient-dense representative foods, and modeling various combinations of foods and amounts to meet specific criteria. (see usda food patterns.)
    • Foods designed for ready availability, use, or consumption
    • Foods that are mainly made up of oil include mayonnaise,
    • Foods that come from the flesh of land animals (e.G., all
    • Fortification
    • Fortification—as defined by the u.S. Food and drug administration (fda), the deliberate addition of one or more essential nutrients to a food, whether or not it is normally contained in the food. Fortification may be used to prevent or correct a demonstrated deficiency in the population or specific population groups; restore naturally occurring nutrients lost during processing, storage, or handling; or to add a nutrient to a food at the level found in a comparable traditional food. When cereal grains are labeled as enriched, it is mandatory that they be fortified with folic acid.
    • Fortified
    • Free radicals
    • Free radicals refer to atoms that have unpaired electrons in their outer layers. Caused by pollutants, cigarette smoke, and the by-product of metabolism they are believed to contribute to tissue damage and aging. Antioxidants are believed to quench these free radicals and neutralise the harmful effects.
    • Fructose
    • Fructose is a type of sugar that is found naturally in fruit and honey.
    • Fruit, whole
    • Functional foods
    • Functional foods are foods that have been manufactured to contain a specific compound to provide a particular health benefit. Also called nutraceuticals or designer foods.
    • Glossary of diet and nutritional terms G

    • G galactose. A monosaccharide known as milk sugar.
    • Galactosemia. An inherited metabolic disorder in which galactose accumulates in the blood due to a deficiency in an enzyme that catalyzes its conversion to glucose.
    • Gallstone. Stones that form in the gallbladder or bile duct from excess cholesterol or salts.
    • Gastroenterologist. A physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the stomach and intestines.
    • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (gerd). A disorder caused by the backward flow of stomach acid into the esophagus. It is usually caused by a temporary or permanent change in the sphincter that separates the lower end of the esophagus from the stomach.
    • Gastroesophageal reflux. The flow of stomach contents into the esophagus.
    • Gastrointestinal tract (gi tract). The tube connecting and including the organs and paths responsible for processing food in the body. These are the mouth, the esophagus, the stomach, the liver, the gallbladder, the pancreas, the small intestine, the large intestine, and the rectum.
    • Gastrointestinal. Relating to the stomach and intestines.
    • Gene doping. Use of gene transfer technology by athletes to improve performance.
    • Gene expression. The process by which the coded information of a gene is translated into the proteins or rna present and operating in the cell.
    • Gene. A section of dna that includes information about how to create certain proteins.
    • Generally recognized as safe (gras). A phrase used by the federal government to refer to exceptions to the fd&c act of 1938 as modified by the food additives amendment of 1958. Artificial food preservatives that have a scientific consensus on their safety based on either their use prior to 1958 or to wellknown scientific information may be given gras status.
    • Genome. A single haploid set of chromosomes and their genes.
    • Genotype. All or part of the genetic constitution of an individual or group.
    • Germ.In grains, the center part of the grain kernel that contains vitamins and minerals not found in the rest of the kernel. It is removed from refined (white) flour.
    • Ghrelin. A recently discovered peptide hormone secreted by cells in the lining of the stomach. Ghrelin is important in appetite regulation and maintaining the body’s energy balance.
    • Gingko biloba. A deciduous tree native to northern china whose leaves are used to make an extract thought to improve memory and relieve depression.
    • Gla. Gamma-linolenic acid; an essential fatty acid found in evening primrose oil.
    • Glaucoma. A condition where pressure within the eye causes damage to the optic nerve, which sends visual images to the brain.
    • Glucagon.A hormone made by the alpha cells of the pancreas that helps regulate blood sugar (glucose) levels by signaling liver and muscle cells to release sugar stored as glycogen.
    • Glucomannan. A plant substance composed of long chains of the sugars glucose and mannose. It is not digested, and may be ised as a laxative. The material has been claimed to provide a feeling of abdominal and intestinal fullness.
    • Gluconeogenesis.The process of making glucose (sugar) from its own breakdown products or from the breakdown products of lipids or proteins. Gluconeogenesis occurs mainly in cells of the liver or kidney.
    • Glucosamine. A type of amino sugar that is thought to help in the formation and repair of cartilage. It can be extracted from crab or shrimp shells and used as a dietary supplement by people with oa.
    • Gluten. An elastic protein found in wheat and some other grains that gives cohesiveness to bread dough. Some people are allergic to gluten and cannot digest products containing wheat.
    • Glycemic index (gi). A system devised at the university of toronto in 1981 that ranks carbohydrates in individual foods on a gram-for-gram basis in regard to their effect on blood glucose levels in the first two hours after a meal. There are two commonly used gis, one based on pure glucose as the reference standard and the other based on white bread.
    • Glycemic load (gl). A more practical ranking of how an amount of a particular food will affect blood glucose levels. The glycemic index (gi) is part of the equation for determining ranking.
    • Glycerin. A sweet syrupy alcohol obtained from animal fats. It is often used in cough syrups and other liquid medications to give them a smooth texture.
    • Glycerol. The central structural component of triglycerides and phospholipids. It is made naturally by animals and plants; the ratio of atoms in glycerol is three carbons, eight hydrogens, and three oxygens.
    • Glycogen. The storage form of glucose found in the liver and muscles.
    • Gulf war syndrome (gws). A disorder characterized by a wide range of symptoms, including skin rashes, migraine headaches, chronic fatigue, arthritis, and muscle cramps, possibly related to military service in the persian gulf war of 1991. Gws was briefly attributed to the troops’ high consumption of beverages containing aspartame, but this explanation has been discredited.
    • Gastrointestinal surgery (to treat obesity)
    • Gastrointestinal surgery (to treat obesity) see bariatric surgery.
    • Germ
    • Gestational diabetes
    • Gestational diabetes (jest-ay-shun-ul) (dye-ah-bee-teez) a type of diabetes that can occur when a woman is pregnant. In the second half of her pregnancy, a woman may have glucose (sugar) in her blood at a level that is higher than normal. In about 95 percent of cases, blood sugar returns to normal after the pregnancy is over. However, women who develop gestational diabetes are at risk for developing type 2 diabetes later in life. [also see diabetes and type 2 diabetes.]
    • Glossary
    • Glucose
    • Glucose is a simple sugar derived from the breakdown of carbohydrates. Glucose is a major source of fuel for the body, particularly the brain.
    • Glucose (glu-kos) glucose is a major source of energy for our bodies and a building block for many carbohydrates [see definition]. The food digestion process breaks down carbohydrates in foods and drinks into glucose. After digestion, glucose is carried in the blood and goes to body cells where it is used for energy or stored.
    • Gluten
    • Gluten is a protein found in wheat, rye, barley, triticale and possibly oats (dependant on cross-contamination during processing). It is the gluten that gives dough its sticky cohesiveness which is important in manufacturing many products such as bread.
    • Glycaemic index
    • Glycogen
    • Glycogen is the condensed form that any unused glucose takes when it is stored in the liver and around muscles. It is then readily available as required.
    • Goitre
    • Goitre is an enlargement of the thyroid gland due to iodine deficiency or malfunction of the thyroid gland.
    • Grain, refined
    • Grain, whole
    • Grains and grain products made from the entire grain
    • Grains and grain products with the bran and germ
    • Grams
    • Grams (g) are a unit of measurement. Often used in nutritional values for nutrients such as carbohydrate, protein and fibre.
    • Glossary of diet and nutritional terms H

    • H hdl cholesterol. High-density lipoprotein; ‘good’ cholesterol that helps protect against heart disease.
    • Hdl
    • Hdl see high-density lipoprotein.
    • Healthy eating index (hei). A measure of diet quality that assesses conformance to federal dietary guidance.
    • Heart attack. A heart attack occurs when blood flow to the heart muscle is interrupted. This deprives the heart muscle of oxygen, causing tissue damage or tissue death.
    • Heart disease. Any disorder of the heart or its blood supply, including heart attack, atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease.
    • Heat exhaustion. A mild form of heat stroke, characterized by faintness, dizziness, and heavy sweating.
    • Helicobacter pylori. A spiral-shaped gramnegative bacterium that lives in the lining of the stomach and is known to cause gastric ulcers.
    • Hematemesis. The medical term for bloody vomitus.
    • Hemodialysis. Type of dialysis to clean wastes from the blood after the kidneys have failed: the blood travels through tubes to a dialyzer, a machine that removes wastes and extra fluid. The cleaned blood then goes back into the body.
    • Hemorrhagic. Relating to escape of blood from the vessels. Bleeding.
    • Hemorrhoid. Swollen and inflamed veins around the anus or rectum.
    • Herb. A plant used in cooking or for medical purposes. Examples include echinacea and ginseng.
    • Herbivore.An animal whose diet consists primarily or entirely of plant matter. Herbivorous animals include deer, sheep, cows, horses, elephants, giraffes, and bison.
    • Hiatus hernia. A protrusion of part of the stomach through the diaphragm to a position next to the esophagus.
    • High blood pressure. Blood pressure is the force of the blood on the arteries as the heart pumps blood through the body. High blood pressure, or hypertension, is a condition where there is too much pressure, which can lead to heart and kidney problems.
    • High-density lipoprotein (hdl). Often referred to as good cholesterol. This takes cholesterol away from the cells and back to the liver, where it’s broken down or excreted.
    • High-intensity sweetener. Another term for nonnutritive sweetener, used because these substances add sweetness to food with very little volume.
    • Highly active antiretroviral therapy (haart).
    • Hinduism. A broad group of religious and philosophical beliefs from india. It is characterized by belief in reincarnation, one god with many forms, and the pursuit of transcending the evils of earth.
    • Histamine. A substance that is released by the body in the presence of allergens. It stimulates dilation of blood vessels, constriction of breathing tubes, and decreased blood pressure.
    • Hiv infection that has led to certain opportunistic infections, cancers, or a cd4+ t-lymphocyte (helper cell) blood cell count lower than 200/ml.
    • Homeopathic. Relating to homeopathy, a system of treating diseases by giving people very small doses of natural substances which, in healthy people, cause the same symptoms as the disease being treated.
    • Homeostasis. The complex set of regulatory mechanisms that works to keep the body at optimal physiological and chemical stability in order for cellular reactions to occur.
    • Homocysteine. An amino-acid product of animal metabolism that at high blood levels is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (cvd).
    • Hormone replacement therapy (hrt). Use of the female hormones estrogen and progestin (a synthetic form of progesterone) to replace those the body no longer produces after menopause.
    • Hormone. A chemical substance produced in the body that controls and regulates the activity of certain cells or organs.
    • Human growth hormone (hgh). A hormone produced in the pituitary gland that stimulates growth of bone and muscle.
    • Hybridization. Relating to a plant produced from a cross between two genetically different plants.
    • Hydrocarbon. A substance consisting only of carbon and hydrogen atoms.
    • Hydrogenated fats. A type of fat made by the process of hydrogenation, which turns liquid oils into solid fat. Bio-hydrogenation occurs in ruminant animals (eg. Cows) and so small amounts of hydrogenated fats are found in butter, dairy foods and meat but these are accepted as being harmless. The commercial hydrogenation of oils produces large quantities of hydrogenated fats and have been implicated in the development of coronary heart disease and impaired cell signalling in the brain.
    • Hydrogenated. Usually refers to partial hydrogenation of oil, a process where hydrogen is added to oils to reduce the degree of unsaturation. This converts fatty acids from a cis to trans fatty acids.
    • Hydrogenation. The addition of hydrogen atoms to carbon double bonds to make them in to single bonds.
    • Hydrolyze.To break apart through reaction with water.
    • Hydroxylapatite. The main mineral component of bone, of which zinc is a constituent.
    • Hypercalcemia. Abnormally high levels of calcium in the blood.
    • Hypercholesterolemia. High levels of cholesterol in the blood.
    • Hyperglycemia. A condition where there is too much glucose or sugar in the blood.
    • Hyperhydration. Excess water content of the body.
    • Hyperlipidemia. Elevation of lipid levels (fats) in the bloodstream. These lipids include cholesterol, cholesterol compounds, phospholipids and triglycerides, all carried in the blood as part of large molecules called lipoproteins.
    • Hyperplastic obesity. Excessive weight gain in childhood, characterized by the creation of new fat cells.
    • Hypertension. High blood pressure.
    • Hyperthyroidism. Over production of the thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.
    • Hypertrophic obesity. Excessive weight gain in adulthood, characterized by expansion of already existing fat cells.
    • Hyperuricemia. High levels of uric acid in the blood.
    • Hypoglycemia. Abnormally low blood sugar levels.
    • Hypolipidemic. Promoting the reduction of lipid concentrations in the serum.
    • Hyponatremia. Inadequate sodium levels in the body, possibly caused by loss of sodium through perspiration, diarrhea, or vomiting, and replacement of fluids with water that does not contain adequate electrolytes.
    • Hypothyroidism. A disorder in which the thyroid gland in the neck produces too little thyroid 1043 glossary hormone. One of the functions of thyroid hormone is to regulate metabolic rate.
    • Haemoglobin
    • Haemoglobin is a protein found in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the cells throughout the body.
    • Having a high amount of body fat. People are considered obese if they have a body mass index (bmi) of 30 kg/m2 or greater.
    • Health
    • Health claims
    • Health claims show a relationship between a specific nutrient in a food and prevention of a particular disease or health related condition.
    • Healthy eating index (hei)—a measure of diet quality that assesses adherence to the dietary guidelines. The hei is used to monitor diet quality in the united states and to examine relationships between diet and health-related outcomes. The hei is a scoring metric that can be applied to any defined set of foods, such as previously collected dietary data, a defined menu, or a market basket. Thus, the hei can be used to assess the quality of food assistance packages, menus, and the u.S. Food supply.
    • Healthy mediterranean-style eating pattern—a pattern that exemplifies healthy eating, designed by modifying the healthy u.S.-style pattern to more closely reflect eating patterns that have been associated with positive health outcomes in studies of mediterranean-style diets. This pattern is evaluated based on its similarity to food group intakes of groups with positive health outcomes in these studies rather than on meeting specified nutrient standards. It differs from the healthy u.S.-style pattern in that it includes more fruits and seafood and less dairy.
    • Healthy u.S.-style eating pattern—a pattern that exemplifies healthy eating based on the types and proportions of foods americans typically consume, but in nutrient-dense forms and appropriate amounts, designed to meet nutrient needs while not exceeding calorie requirements. It is substantially unchanged from the primary usda food patterns of the 2010 dietary guidelines. This pattern is evaluated in comparison to meeting dietary reference intakes for essential nutrients and staying within limits set by the iom or dietary guidelines for overconsumed food components. It aligns closely with the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (dash) eating plan, a guide for healthy eating based on the dash diet which was tested in clinical trials. (see nutrient dense and dash eating plan.)
    • Healthy vegetarian eating pattern—a pattern that exemplifies healthy eating, designed by modifying the healthy u.S.-style pattern to more closely reflect eating patterns reported by self-identified vegetarians. This pattern is evaluated in comparison to meeting dietary reference intakes for essential nutrients and staying within limits set by the iom or dietary guidelines for overconsumed food components. It differs from the healthy u.S.-style pattern in that it includes more legumes, soy products, nuts and seeds, and whole grains, and no meat, poultry, or seafood.
    • Healthy weight
    • Healthy weight healthy weight status is often based on having a body mass index (bmi) that falls in the normal (or healthy) range [see body mass index]. A healthy body weight may lower the chances of developing health problems such as type 2 diabetes and heart disease.
    • Health—a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
    • Heart disease as well as diseases of the blood vessel
    • Heart disease many different types of heart disease exist. The most common cause of heart disease is narrowing or blockage of the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart. This is called coronary artery disease and happens slowly over time. It’s the major reason people have heart attacks. Other kinds of heart problems may happen to the valves in the heart, or the heart may not pump well and cause heart failure.
    • Heavy metals
    • Heavy metals are minerals such as mercury and lead. They are named because they are relatively high in atomic weight. Many heavy metals are poisonous.
    • High blood pressure
    • High blood pressure your blood pressure rises and falls throughout the day. An optimal blood pressure is less than 120/80 mmhg. When blood pressure stays high—greater than or equal to 140/90 mmhg—you have high blood pressure, also called “Hypertension”. With high blood pressure, the heart works harder, your arteries take a beating, and your chances of a stroke, heart attack, and kidney problems are greater. Uncontrolled high blood pressure may lead to blindness, heart attacks, heart failure, kidney disease, and stroke. Prehypertension is blood pressure between 120 and 139 for the top number, or between 80 and 89 for the bottom number. If your blood pressure is in the prehypertension range, you may be at risk for high blood pressure unless you take action to prevent it.
    • High-density lipoprotein (hdl)
    • High-density lipoprotein (hdl-cholesterol)—blood cholesterol often called “good” cholesterol; carries cholesterol from tissues to the liver, which removes it from the body.
    • High-density lipoprotein (hdl) (lip-o-pro-teen) hdl is a compound made up of fat and protein that carries cholesterol in the blood to the liver, where it is broken down and excreted. Commonly called “Good” cholesterol, high levels of hdl cholesterol are linked to a lower risk of heart disease. Men should aim for an hdl of 40 mg/dl or higher. Women should aim for an hdl of 50 mg/dl or higher.
    • High-intensity sweeteners—ingredients commonly used as sugar substitutes or sugar alternatives to sweeten and enhance the flavor of foods and beverages. People may choose these sweeteners in place of sugar for a number of reasons, including that they contribute few or no calories to the diet. Because high-intensity sweeteners are many times sweeter than table sugar (sucrose), smaller amounts of high-intensity sweeteners are needed to achieve the same level of sweetness as sugar in food and beverages. (other terms commonly used to refer to sugar substitutes or alternatives include non-caloric, low-calorie, no-calorie, and artificial sweeteners, which may have different definitions and applications. A high-intensity sweetener may or may not be non-caloric, low-calorie, no-calorie, or artificial sweeteners.)
    • Hormones
    • Household food insecurity—circumstances in which the availability of nutritionally adequate and safe food, or the ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways, is limited or uncertain.
    • However fat should be eaten sparingly as too much can lead to weight gain, heart disease and some cancers. The type of fat eaten is also important:
    • Hydrogenation
    • Hydrogenation is the addition of hydrogen to a monounsaturated or polyunsaturated oil, producing a more solid oil and is used to make spreadable fats and reduce oxidation to protect against rancidity.
    • Hydrogenation (high-dro-jen-ay-shun) a chemical process that turns liquid fats (oils) into solid fats, hydrogenation creates a fat called trans fatty acid (also known as “Trans fat”). Trans fats are found in frostings, shortening, some margarines, and some commercial baked foods, like cakes, cookies, muffins, and pastries. Eating trans fats may raise heart disease risk. Federal dietary guidelines [found at https://www.Health.Gov/dietaryguidelines/ external link] recommend keeping trans fat intakes as low as possible.
    • Hypertension
    • Hypertension see high blood pressure.
    • Hypertension—a condition, also known as high blood pressure, in which blood pressure remains elevated over time. Hypertension makes the heart work too hard, and the high force of the blood flow can harm arteries and organs, such as the heart, kidneys, brain, and eyes. Uncontrolled hypertension can lead to heart attacks, heart failure, kidney disease, stroke, and blindness. Prehypertension is defined as blood pressure that is higher than normal but not high enough to be defined as hypertension.
    • Glossary of diet and nutritional terms I

    • Ideal weight. Weight corresponding to the lowest death rate for individuals of a specific height, gender, and age.
    • Idiopathic intracranial hypertension.Increased fluid pressure within the blood vessels supplying the brain. Obese women are at increased risk of developing this disorder.
    • Idiopathic. Used to describe a disease or disorder that has no known cause.
    • Ileum. The last section of the small intestine located between the jejunum and the large intestine.
    • Immune system. The integrated body system of organs, tissues, cells, and cell products such as antibodies that protects the body from foreign organisms or substances.
    • Immunocompromised. Having an impaired or weakened immune system. The immune system protects the body from foreign substances, cells, and tissues.
    • Immunosuppressant. Suppression of the immune system.
    • Impaction. The medical term for a mass of fecal matter that has become lodged in the lower digestive tract. Removal of this material is called disimpaction.
    • Impulsivity. Acting or speaking too quickly (upon impulse) without first thinking of the consequences.
    • Indicated. In medical terminology, reviewed and approved by the united states food & drug administration, or the comparable agency in other nations, for a specific use.
    • Inflammation. A response of body tissues to injury or irritation characterized by pain and swelling and redness and heat.
    • Insoluble fiber. Fiber that cannot dissolve in water; found in whole grains, breads, and cereals as well as carrots, cucumbers, zucchini, and tomatoes.
    • Insomnia. The inability to sleep.
    • Insulin resistance syndrome. A medical condition in which insulin fails to function normally in regulating blood glucose (sugar) levels.
    • Insulin resistance. A condition in which normal amounts of insulin in a person’s blood are not adequate to produce an insulin response from fat, muscle, and liver cells. Insulin resistance is often a precursor of type 2 (adult-onset) diabetes.
    • Insulin. A hormone made in the pancreas that is essential for the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins, and that regulates blood sugar levels.
    • Integrative medicine.A medical outlook combining aspects of conventional and alternative medicines.
    • Intermittent claudication. Symptoms that occur when the leg muscles do not receive the oxygen rich blood required during exercise, thus causing cramping in the hips, thighs or calves.
    • International osteoporosis federation (iof).
    • Intestinal flora. The sum of all bacteria and fungi that live in the intestines. It is required to break down nutrients, fight off pathogens and helps the body build the vitamin e and k. An unbalanced intestinal flora can lead to many health problems.
    • Inulin. Naturally occurring oligosaccharides (several simple sugars linked together) produced by many types of plants. They belong to a class of carbohydrates known as fructans.
    • Ion. An atom or molecule that has an electric charge. In the body ions are collectively referred to as electrolytes.
    • Iron deficiency anemia. The inability to make sufficient red blood cells that results in fatigue, shortness of breath, headaches and in ability to fight infections. It is common in pregnancy.
    • Irritable bowel syndrome. A chronic colon disorder that involves constipation and diarrhea, abdominal pain, and mucus in the stool.
    • Isoflavones. Estrogen-like compounds in plants.
    • Ige is measured in allergy tests.
    • Ige. A substance in the body that triggers the body to release histamine when an allergen enters the body.
    • In medicine, the state of having the right amount of acid
    • Ingredient list
    • Inorganic substances that are required by the body in
    • Insoluble fiber moves through the digestive system almost undigested and gives bulk to stools. Soluble fiber dissolves in water and helps keep stools soft.
    • Insoluble fibre
    • Insulin
    • Insulin is a hormone produced in the pancreas in response to increased blood glucose levels. Insulins primary role is to transport glucose from the bloodstream into the muscle and tissues.
    • Insulin (in-sah-lin) a hormone made by the pancreas, insulin helps move glucose (sugar) from the blood to muscles and other tissues. Insulin controls blood sugar levels.
    • Iron
    • Iron helps create healthy blood and carries oxygen around the body. Iron is found in legumes, wholegrain breads and cereals, green leafy vegetables, nuts, seeds and meat.
    • Isoflavones
    • Isoflavones are a naturally occurring plant compounds that have similar structural properties to estrogen. Also known as phytoestrogens.
    • It has a negative charge when a free or unpaired electron exists making it chemically unstable and likely to initiate chemical reactions.
    • It has been associated with travel and residence in tropical areas.
    • Glossary of diet and nutritional terms J

    • Jejunum.The section of the small intestine located between the duodenum and the ileum.
    • Jaundice
    • Jaundice is the yellowing of the skin due to excessive bilirubin build-up in the blood. This may be caused by high levels of red blood cell destruction.
    • Juice fasts are one type pf detoxification diet.
    • Glossary of diet and nutritional terms K

    • K kashin–beck disease. A disorder of the bones and joints of the hands and fingers, elbows, knees, and ankles of children and adolescents who slowly develop stiff deformed joints, shortened limb length and short stature. The disorder is endemic in some areas of eastern siberia, korea, china and tibet.
    • Keshan’s disease. A potentially fatal form of cardiomyopathy (disease of the heart muscle).
    • Ketoacidosis. A condition due to starvation or uncontrolled type I diabetes. Ketones are acid compounds that form in the blood when the body breaks down fats and proteins. Symptoms include abdominal pain, vomiting, rapid breathing, extreme tiredness, and drowsiness.
    • Ketone. Chemicals produced by fat breakdown; molecule containing a double-bonded oxygen linked to two carbons.
    • Ketosis. An abnormal increase in the number of ketone bodies in the body, produced when the liver breaks down fat into fatty acids and ketone bodies.
    • Kidney dialysis. A process where blood is filtered through a dialysis machine to remove waste products that would normally be removed by the kidneys. The filtered blood is then circulated back into the patient.
    • Kidney stones. A small, hard mass in the kidney that forms from chemical deposits. Kidney stones can be extremely painful and are often difficult to diagnose.
    • Kilojoule. 1,000 joules; a unit equivalent to 0.239 calories.
    • Kinase. An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of phosphate groups from high-energy phosphate-containing molecules, such as atp, to another molecule.
    • Krebs cycle. Cellular reaction that breaks down numerous nutrients and provides building blocks for other molecules.
    • Kwashiorkor. Severe malnutrition characterized by swollen belly, hair loss, and loss of skin pigment.
    • Ketosis is a common side effect of low-carbohydrate diets or vlcds. If continued for a long period of time, ketosis can cause serious damage to the kidneys and liver.
    • Kilojoules (kj)
    • Kilojoules are the current standard unit of energy measurement. One gram of fat contains 37 kj, one gram of protein or one gram of carbohydrates contain 17 kj.
    • Glossary of diet and nutritional terms L

    • L lacto-ovo vegetarian. People who do not eat meat, but do include dairy products and eggs in their diets.
    • L-carnitine. A molecule in muscle that is responsible for transporting fatty acids across mitochondrial membranes; obtained from meat and milk.
    • L-histidine. An essential amino acid important for the growth and repair of tissues.
    • Lactose intolerance. A condition in which the body does not produce enough lactase, an enzyme needed to digest lactose (milk sugar). Ovolactovegetarians with lactose intolerance often choose to use soy milk, almond milk, or other milk substitutes as sources of protein.
    • Lactose. Milk sugar; a disaccharide sugar present in milk that is made up of one glucose molecule and one galactose molecule.
    • Lactovegetarian. A vegetarian who uses milk and cheese in addition to plant-based foods.
    • Language experience approach. An approach to reading instruction based on activities and stories developed from personal experiences of the learner.
    • Lanolin. A greasy substance extracted from wool, often used in hand creams and other cosmetics.
    • Laparoscopic. Pertaining to a surgical procedure which uses an instrument which can be inserted into the body to view structures within the abdomen and pelvis.
    • Large intestine. The terminal part of the digestive system, site of water recycling, nutrient absorption, and waste processing located in the abdominal cavity. It consists of the caecum, the colon, and the rectum.
    • Laxative. A substance that stimulates movement of food through the bowels. Laxatives are used to treat constipation.
    • Ldl
    • Ldl cholesterol. Low-density lipoprotein containing a high proportion of cholesterol that is associated with the development of arteriosclerosis.
    • Ldl see low-density lipoprotein.
    • Leavening. Yeast or other agents used for rising bread.
    • Lectins. Protein substances found in foods that bind with carbohydrates in blood causing it to clot.
    • Leptin. A hormone produced by fat cells (adipose tissue) that tells the brain that the body has eaten calories and should stop eating.
    • Lignan. Compounds in plants that have antioxidant and estrogenic activities.
    • Lipase. An enzyme produced from the pancreas that breaks down fats.
    • Lipid peroxidation. This refers to the chemical breakdown of fats.
    • Lipid. Group of chemicals, usually fats, that do not dissolve in water, but dissolve in ether.
    • Lipodystrophy. The medical term for redistribution of body fat in response to haart, insulin injections in diabetics, or rare hereditary disorders.
    • Lipoprotein. A combination of fat and protein that transports lipids in the blood.
    • Lipotropic. Factors that promote the utilization of fat by the body.
    • Liquid meal replacements (lmrs). A general term for prepackaged liquid shakes or milk-like drinks intended to substitute for one or more meals a day as part of a weight-loss regimen or source of nutrition for people who cannot eat solid foods.
    • Long life cocktail. A drink consisting of one teaspoon of powdered psyllium husks or one tablespoon of ground or milled flaxseed in 8 oz (237 ml) cran-water.
    • Low birth weight. A low birth weight infant is one who is born after the the normal gestational period (38-42 weeks) but weights less than 2.5 kgs (5.5 pounds) at birth.
    • Low density lipoprotein (ldl) cholesterol. A type of cholesterol in the blood that is considered to be bad for the body. High levels of ldl is a risk factor for heart disease.
    • Lower esophageal sphincter (les). Ring of muscle at the bottom of the esophagus that acts like a valve between the esophagus and stomach.
    • Lycopene. A plant pigment that appears red in natural light and is responsible for the red color of tomatoes. Grapefruit is rich in lycopene, which is a powerful antioxidant and is thought to retard skin aging and may help to protect against chronic diseases such as heart disease and cancer.
    • Lymphoma. Any of various usually malignant tumors that arise in the lymph nodes or in other lymphoid tissue.
    • Label shows how much of a nutrient is in one serving of
    • Lactase
    • Lactase is the enzyme produced in the small intestine that is required to breakdown lactose.
    • Lactose
    • Lactose intolerance a person with this digestive condition has difficulty digesting foods that have lactose, the sugar found in milk and foods made with milk. If you have lactose intolerance, you may feel sick to your stomach after eating these foods. You may also have gas, diarrhea, and/or swelling in your stomach. Eating less food with lactose or using pills or drops to help you digest lactose usually helps. Aged and hard cheeses, fermented milk products (like yogurt), and lactose-free milk and milk products may be easier to digest. You may need to take a calcium supplement if you avoid milk and foods made with milk because they are the most common source of calcium for most people.
    • Lactose is the sugar found in milk. The body breaks it down to glucose and galactose.
    • Lean meat and lean poultry—any meat or poultry that contains less than 10 g of fat, 4.5 g or less of saturated fats, and less than 95 mg of cholesterol per 100 g and per labeled serving size, based on usda definitions for food label use. Examples include 95% lean cooked ground beef, beef top round steak or roast, beef tenderloin, pork top loin chop or roast, pork tenderloin, ham or turkey deli slices, skinless chicken breast, and skinless turkey breast.
    • Legumes
    • Legumes are plants of the pea or pod family, including peas, beans and lentils. They are rich in fibre and protein.
    • Lipoprotein
    • Lipoprotein (lip-o-pro-teen) a compound made up of fat and protein that carries fats and fat-like substances, such as cholesterol, in the blood. [see also high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein.]
    • Liquids that are sweetened with various forms of added
    • Losing and gaining weight over and over again. Commonly called “yo-yo” dieting.
    • Low-density lipoprotein (ldl)
    • Low-density lipoprotein (ldl-cholesterol)—blood cholesterol often called “bad” cholesterol; carries cholesterol to arteries and tissues. A high ldl-cholesterol level in the blood leads to a buildup of cholesterol in arteries.
    • Low-density lipoprotein (ldl) (lip-o-pro-teen) ldl is a compound made up of fat and protein that carries cholesterol in the blood from the liver to other parts of the body. High levels of ldl cholesterol, commonly called “Bad” cholesterol, cause a buildup of cholesterol in the arteries and increase the risk of heart disease. An ldl level of less than 100 mg/dl is considered optimal, 100 to 129 mg/dl is considered near or above optimal, 130 to 159 mg/dl is considered borderline high, 160 to 189 mg/dl is considered high, and 190 mg/dl or greater is considered very high.
    • Lycopene
    • Lycopene is a phytochemical found in fruit and vegetables which gives them a red pigment. Lycopene can be more easily absorbed by the body if it has been gently cooked.
    • Glossary of diet and nutritional terms M

    • M macadamia nut. A hard-shelled nut resembling a filbert, produced by an evergreen tree native to australia and cultivated extensively in hawaii. The nut is named for john macadam, an australian chemist.
    • Macro minerals. Minerals that are needed by the body in relatively large amounts. They include sodium, potassium, chlorine, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium.
    • Macronutrient:. A nutrient needed in large quantities.
    • Macular degeneration.A chronic disease of the eyes caused by the deterioration of the central portion of the retina, known as the macula, which is responsible for focusing central vision in the eye.
    • Malabsorption syndrome. A condition characterized by indigestion, bloating, diarrhea, loss of appetite, and weakness, caused by poor absorption of nutrients from food as a result of giardiasis, other bowel disorders, or certain surgical procedures involving the digestive tract.
    • Malabsorption. Poor absorption of nutrients by the small intestine, difficulty in the digestion of nutrients.
    • Malignant. Unfavorable, tending to produce deterioration or death. For a tumor, it generally means cancerous.
    • Malnourished.Lack of adequate nutrients in the diet.
    • Malnutrition. Poor nutrition because of an insufficient or poorly balanced diet or faulty digestion or utilization of foods.
    • Megacolon. A condition in which the colon becomes stretched far beyond its usual size. Children with long-term constipation may develop megacolon.
    • Meningitis. A serious infection of the membranes surrounding the brain.
    • Menopause. Phase in a woman’s life during which ovulation and menstruation end.
    • Metabolic rate. The bmr adjusted by an activity factor with the harris-benedict formula to determine total daily energy expenditure in calories or kilojoules.
    • Metabolic syndrome x. Also called the insulin resistance syndrome or pre-diabetic syndrome. The syndrome is closely associated with hypertriglyceridemia and with low hdl-‘‘good’’ cholesterol.
    • Metabolic syndrome. A group of risk factors related to insulin resistance and associated with an increased risk of heart disease. Patients with any three of the following five factors are defined as having metabolic syndrome: waist circumference over 102 cm (41 in) for men and 88 cm (34.6 in) for women; high triglyceride levels in the blood; low levels of hdl cholesterol; high blood pressure or the use of blood pressure medications; and impaired levels of fasting blood glucose (higher than 110 mg/dl).
    • Metabolic. Refers to the chemical reactions in living things.
    • Metabolism. The process by which food is converted into energy.
    • Metabolize. To produce the chemical changes in the body’s living cells that provide energy for vital processes and activities.
    • Metabolome. All of the metabolites found in the cells and fluids of the body under specific dietary and physiological conditions.
    • Metalloenzyme. An enzyme that contains a tightly bound metal ion, such as cobalt, copper, iron or zinc.
    • Methionine. A crystalline amino acid found in many protein foods. It is sometimes taken as a supplement during a detox diet.
    • Metrecal. The first product marketed as an lmr for weight reduction, introduced in 1960 by mead johnson.
    • Mets (metabolic equivalents)
    • Microflora. This term describes the collection of small micro-organisms, such as bacteria , that colonize the gastrointestinal tract (gut).
    • Micronutrient. Nutrients needed by the body in small amounts. They include vitamins and minerals.
    • Microorganism. Bacteria and protists; singlecelled organisms.
    • Mineral. An inorganic substance found in the earth that is necessary in small quantities for the body to maintain a health. Examples: zinc, copper, iron.
    • Mitochondria. Small bodies within a cell that harvest energy for use by the cell.
    • Mitral valve. A heart valve, also called the bicuspid valve which allow blood to flow from the left auricle to the ventricle, but does not allow the blood to flow backwards.
    • Molecular weight. The total of the atomic weights of the atoms in a molecule.
    • Mono diet. A type of detoxification diet based on the use of only one food or beverage. Some versions of the grapefruit diet are essentially mono diets.
    • Mono-amine oxidase inhibitor. A class of antidepressant drugs that act by blocking an ezyme that destroys some of the hormones in the brain. These drugs have a large number of food and drug interactions.
    • Monosaccharide.Any of several carbohydrates, such as glucose, fructose, galactose, that cannot be broken down to simpler sugars.
    • Monosodium glutamate. Msg; sodium glutamate; a salt derived from glutamic acid that is used to enhance the flavor of foods.
    • Monounsaturated fat. A fat or fatty acid with only one double-bonded carbon atom in its molecule.
    • Morbid obesity. A term used to describe individuals 100 lb (45 kg) or more than 50% overweight and/or who have a body mass index above 40.
    • Mthfr. Methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase; an enzyme that regulates folic acid and maintains blood levels of homocysteine.
    • Mucilage.A sticky substance used as an adhesive.
    • Mucus. Thick, viscous, gel-like material that functions to moisten and protect inner body surfaces.
    • Multiple sclerosis. A chronic degenerative disease of the central nervous system in which gradual destruction of myelin occurs in patches throughout the brain or spinal cord, interfering with the nerve pathways and causing muscular weakness, loss of coordination and speech and visual disturbances.
    • Myoglobin. Oxygen storage protein in muscle.
    • Mypyramid. A guide of what to eat each day created by the u.S. Department of agriculture based on the 2005 dietary guidelines for americans.
    • Macronutrient
    • Macronutrients
    • Macronutrients are the key nutrients in the diet that provide us with energy. They are carbohydrate, protein and fat.
    • Macronutrient (mac-roh-noo-tree-ent) a macronutrient is any nutrient that the body uses in relatively large amounts. They include carbohydrates, fat, and proteins. These are different from micronutrients, such as vitamins and minerals, which the body needs in smaller amounts.
    • Macronutrient—a dietary component that provides energy. Macronutrients include protein, fats, carbohydrates, and alcohol.
    • Many glucose units linked together into long chains.
    • Marine animals that live in the sea and in freshwater lakes
    • Meat (also known as “red meat”)—all forms of beef, pork, lamb, veal, goat, and non-bird game (e.G., venison, bison, elk).
    • Meats and poultry
    • Meats and poultry, lean
    • Meats and poultry, processed
    • Meats and poultry—foods that come from the flesh of land animals and birds. In the usda food patterns, organs (such as liver) are also considered to be meat or poultry.
    • Metabolic syndrome
    • Metabolic syndrome is the term given to a group of risk factors which, when present, greatly increase an individuals risk of developing coronary heart disease or type-2 diabetes. These factors are insulin resistance (or high blood glucose levels), hypertension, abnormal blood lipids, and obesity.
    • Metabolic syndrome (meh-tab-o-lik sind-rome) a person with metabolic syndrome has a group of medical problems that, when they occur together, may increase the risk of heart disease and diabetes. These problems are a large waist size, high blood pressure, high blood sugar levels, high levels of triglycerides, and low levels of high-density lipoprotein (hdl).
    • Metabolism
    • Metabolism refers to the chemical processes that occur in our body that turn what we eat into energy. This energy can then be used for all activity including walking, talking, thinking and breathing.
    • Metabolism (meh-tab-o-liszm) the process that occurs in the body to turn the food you eat into energy your body can use.
    • Micrograms
    • Micrograms (ug) are a unit of measurement. Often used in nutritional values for nutrients such as folate and vitamin b12.
    • Micronutrient
    • Micronutrients
    • Micronutrients is the general name given to compounds that are needed in minute quantities to sustain a healthy body, such as vitamins and minerals.
    • Milligrams
    • Milligrams (mg) are a unit of measurement. Often used in nutritional values for nutrients such as calcium and iron.
    • Minerals
    • Minerals are important for the formation of bones, teeth, blood and connective tissues. They play important roles in chemical reactions, as they are a component of enzymes. Minerals also regulate water balance, muscle contractions and nerve transmissions. They are required in the body in small amounts and must be obtained from food.
    • Minerals such as selenium, zinc and copper
    • Mixed dishes
    • Mixed dishes—savory food items eaten as a single entity that include foods from more than one food group. These foods often are mixtures of grains, protein foods, vegetables, and/or dairy. Examples of mixed dishes include burgers, sandwiches, tacos, burritos, pizzas, macaroni and cheese, stir-fries, spaghetti and meatballs, casseroles, soups, egg rolls, and caesar salad.
    • Moderate alcohol consumption—up to one drink per day for women and up to two drinks per day for men. One drink-equivalent is described using the reference beverages of 12 fl oz of regular beer (5% alcohol), 5 fl oz of wine (12% alcohol), or 1.5 fl oz of 80 proof (40%) distilled spirits. One drink-equivalent is described as containing contains 14 g (0.6 fl oz) of pure alcohol.[1]
    • Monounsaturated fatty acids (mufas)—fatty acids that have one double bond and are usually liquid at room temperature. Plant sources rich in mufas include vegetable oils (e.G., canola, olive, high oleic safflower and sunflower), as well as nuts.
    • Monounsaturated fat
    • Monounsaturated fat (mono-un-satch-er-ay-ted) this type of fat is found in avocados, canola oil, nuts, olives and olive oil, and seeds. Eating food that has more monounsaturated fat (or “Healthy fat”) instead of saturated fat (like butter) may help lower cholesterol and reduce heart disease risk. However, monounsaturated fat has the same number of calories as other types of fat and may contribute to weight gain if you eat too much of it.
    • Multi-component intervention—interventions that use a combination of strategies to promote behavior change. These strategies can be employed across or within different settings or levels of influence.
    • Multi-level intervention—interventions are those that target change at the individual level as well as additional levels, such as in the community (e.G., public health campaigns), schools (e.G., education), and food service (e.G., menu modification).
    • Muscle-strengthening activity a type of physical activity that promotes the growth and strength of muscles. Examples include lifting weights and doing push-ups and sit-ups. Federal guidelines recommend that adults do activities that strengthen muscles at least twice a week.
    • Glossary of diet and nutritional terms N

    • N narcissism. Excessive admiration of one’s self.
    • Narcotic. An agent that causes insensibility or stupor; usually refers to opioids given to relieve pain.
    • National academy of sciences. A private, nonprofit society of scholars with a mandate to advise the united states government on scientific and technical matters.
    • National osteoporosis foundation (nof).
    • National osteoporosis society (nos).The only uk national charity dedicated to eradicating osteoporosis and promoting bone health in both men and women.
    • National weight control registry (nwcr).
    • Naturopathic medicine. An alternative system of healing that uses primarily homeopathy, herbal medicine, and hydrotherapy and rejects most conventional drugs as toxic.
    • Naturopathy.A system of disease treatment that emphasizes natural means of health care, as water, natural foods, dietary adjustments, massage and manipulation, and electrotherapy, rather than conventional drugs and surgery. Naturopaths (practitioners of naturopathy) often recommend juice fasts as a way of cleansing the body.
    • Nausea. Unpleasant sensation in the gut that precedes vomiting nephrons. A tiny part of the kidneys. Each kidney is made up of about 1 million nephrons, which are the working units of the kidneys, removing wastes and extra fluids from the blood.
    • Nephrotic syndrome. A disorder marked by a deficiency of albumin (a protein) in the blood and its excretion in the urine.
    • Nervine. An agent that calms nervousness, tension or excitement.
    • Nervous system. The brain, spinal cord, and nerves that extend throughout the body.
    • Neural tube defects. Neural tube defects are serious birth defects that involve incomplete development of the brain, spinal cord and/or protective coverings for these organs.
    • Neurogenic bladder. An unstable bladder associated with a neurological condition, such as diabetes, stroke or spinal cord injury.
    • Neuropathy. Condition of weakness affecting the nervous system.
    • Neurotoxic. A substance that has a specific toxic effect on the nervous system.
    • Neurotransmitter. One of a group of chemicals secreted by a nerve cell (neuron) to carry a chemical message to another nerve cell, often as a way of transmitting a nerve impulse. Examples of neurotransmitters include acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine.
    • Nonnutritive sweetener. Any sweetener that offers little or no energy value when added to food.
    • Nonpolar. Without a separation if charge within the molecule; likely to be hydrophobic.
    • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (nsaids). A class of drugs commonly given to treat the inflammation and pain associated with both ra and oa. Nsaids work by blocking prostaglandins, which are hormone-like compounds that cause pain, fever, muscle cramps, and inflammation. Some nsaids are prescription drugs while others are available in overthe-counter (otc) formulations.
    • Norepinephrine. Hormone released by the sympathetic nervous system onto the heart, blood vessels, 1048 glossary and other organs, and by the adrenal gland into the bloodstream as part of the fight-or-flight response.
    • Normotensives. Individuals with normal blood pressure.
    • Nutriceutical (also spelled nutraceutical).
    • Nutrient. A chemical compound (such as protein, fat, carbohydrate, vitamins, or minerals) that make up foods. These compounds are used by the body to function and grow.
    • Nutrition facts label. Labels affixed to foods sold throughout the united states. Usually on the back or the side of the bottle, package, or bag, the label specifies the amount of calories provided by the contents as well as the amount of nutrients, vitamins and supplements.
    • Nutritionist. A specialist in the field of diet and nutrition.
    • Nutritive sweetener. Any sweetener that adds some energy value to food.
    • Normal weight 5th percentile to less than the 85th percentile 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2
    • Nutrient
    • Nutrient dense nutrient-dense foods and drinks provide important vitamins and minerals and relatively few calories. The term “Nutrient dense” also means that these foods and drinks have not been processed or prepared in a way that added a lot of calories from refined starches, sodium, solid fats, or sugar. Examples include fat-free and low-fat milk products or substitutes; fruits and vegetables; protein sources such as beans and peas, eggs, lean meats, poultry, seafood, and unsalted nuts and seeds; and whole grains.
    • Nutrient dense—a characteristic of foods and beverages that provide vitamins, minerals, and other substances that contribute to adequate nutrient intakes or may have positive health effects, with little or no solid fats and added sugars, refined starches, and sodium. Ideally, these foods and beverages also are in forms that retain naturally occurring components, such as dietary fiber. All vegetables, fruits, whole grains, seafood, eggs, beans and peas, unsalted nuts and seeds, fat-free and low-fat dairy products, and lean meats and poultry—when prepared with little or no added solid fats, sugars, refined starches, and sodium—are nutrient-dense foods. These foods contribute to meeting food group recommendations within calorie and sodium limits. The term “nutrient dense” indicates the nutrients and other beneficial substances in a food have not been “diluted” by the addition of calories from added solid fats, sugars, or refined starches, or by the solid fats naturally present in the food.
    • Nutrient of concern
    • Nutrient of concern—nutrients that are overconsumed or underconsumed and current intakes may pose a substantial public health concern. Data on nutrient intake, corroborated with biochemical markers of nutritional status where available, and association with health outcomes are all used to establish a nutrient as a nutrient of concern. Underconsumed nutrients, or “shortfall nutrients,” are those with a high prevalence of inadequate intake either across the u.S. Population or in specific groups, relative to iom-based standards, such as the estimated average requirement (ear) or the adequate intake (ai). Overconsumed nutrients are those with a high prevalence of excess intake either across the population or in specific groups, related to iom-based standards such as the tolerable upper intake level (ul) or other expert group standards.
    • Nutrient, essential
    • Nutrient-dense
    • Nutrients
    • Nutrients are substances obtained from food that we require for metabolism or physiological processes. Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, fibre and water are all nutrients.
    • Nutrients include proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins,
    • Nutrients that are overconsumed or underconsumed
    • Nutrition
    • Nutrition evidence library (nel) systematic review—a process that uses state-of-the-art methods to identify, evaluate, and synthesize research to provide timely answers to important food and nutrition-related questions to inform u.S. Federal nutrition policies, programs, and recommendations. This rigorous, protocol-driven methodology is designed to minimize bias, maximize transparency, and ensure the use of all available relevant and high-quality research. The nel is a program within the usda center for nutrition policy and promotion. For more detailed information, visit: www.Nel.Gov.
    • Nutrition (new-trish-un) (1) the process of the body using food to sustain life. (2) the study of food and diet.
    • Glossary of diet and nutritional terms O

    • O obese. More than 20% over the individual’s ideal weight for their height and age or having a body mass index (bmi) of 30 or greater.
    • Oa is also known as degenerative joint disease or djd.
    • Objective. Based on facts.
    • Obliques. Types of abdominal muscle.
    • Obsessive-compulsive disorder. A psychiatric disorder in which a person is unable to control the desire to repeat the same action over and over.
    • Oligosaccharide. A carbohydrate that consists of a relatively small number of monosaccharides, such as maltodextrins, fructo-oligo-saccharides.
    • Omega-3 fatty acids. Any of several polyunsaturated fatty acids found in leafy green vegetables, vegetable oils, and fish such as salmon and mackerel, capable of reducing serum cholesterol levels and having anticoagulant properties.
    • Omega-6 fatty acids. Polyunsaturated fatty acid where the first double bond occurs on the sixth carbon-to-carbon double bond from the methyl end of the hydrocarbon chain.
    • Omega-9 fatty acids. Polyunsaturated fatty acids where the first double bond occurs on the ninth carbon-to-carbon double bond from the methyl end of the hydrocarbon chain.
    • Omnivore. An animal whose teeth and digestive tract are adapted to consume either plant or animal matter. The term does not mean, however, that a given species consumes equal amounts of plant and animal products. Omnivores include bears, squirrels, opossums, rats, pigs, foxes, chickens, crows, monkeys, most dogs, and humans.
    • Opportunistic infection. An infection caused by a normally harmless organism that causes disease when the host’s immune system in weakened. Opportunistic infections are a major problem in the medical and nutritional care of hiv patients.
    • Osteoarthritis (oa). The most common form of arthritis, characterized by erosion of the cartilage layer that lies between the bones in weight-bearing joints.
    • Osteocalcin. The second most abundant protein in bone after collagen required for bone mineralization.
    • Osteomalacia. Softening of bone, particularly bone weakened by demineralization (loss of mineral) and most notably by the depletion of calcium from bone. Osteomalacia may be caused by poor dietary intake or poor absorption of calcium and other minerals needed to harden bones. Osteomalacia is a characteristic feature of vitamin d deficiency in adults.
    • Osteopenia. Mild thinning of the bone mass, but not as severe as osteoporosis. Osteopenia results when the formation of bone is not enough to offset normal bone loss. Osteopenia is generally considered the first step to osteoporosis.
    • Osteoporosis. Thinning of the bones with reduction in bone mass due to depletion of calcium and bone protein. Osteoporosis predisposes a person to fractures, which are often slow to heal and heal poorly. It is more common in older adults, particularly post-menopausal women; in patients on steroids; and in those who take steroidal drugs. Unchecked osteoporosis can lead to changes in posture, physical abnormality (particularly the form of hunched back known colloquially as ‘‘dowager’s hump’’), and decreased mobility.
    • Overweight. A person is too heavy for his or her height; someone with a body mass index of from 25 to 30.
    • Ovolactovegetarian. A vegetarian who consumes eggs and dairy products as well as plant-based foods. The official diet recommended to seventh-day adventists is ovolactovegetarian.
    • Ovovegetarian. A vegetarian who eats eggs in addition to plant-based foods but does not use milk or other dairy products.
    • Oxidation. A chemical reaction in which electrons are lost from a molecule or atom. In the body these reactions can damage cells, tissues, and deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) leading to cardiovascular disease or cancer.
    • Oxidative injury. Damage that occurs to the cells and tissues of the brain and body by highly reactive substances known as free radicals.
    • Oxidative stress. Accumulation in the body of destructive molecules such as free radicals that can lead to cell death.
    • Oxidative.Related to chemical reaction with oxygen or oxygen-containing compounds.
    • Oxytocin. A hormone that produces a calm, relaxed feeling.
    • Obese equal to or greater than the 95th percentile 30.0 kg/m2 and greater
    • Obesity
    • Obesity (oh-bee-si-tee) obesity refers to excess body fat. Because body fat is usually not measured directly, a ratio of body weight to height is often used instead. It is defined as bmi [see body mass index]. An adult who has a bmi of 30 or higher is considered obese.
    • Oils
    • Oils fats that are liquid at room temperature, oils come from many different plants and from seafood. Some common oils include canola, corn, olive, peanut, safflower, soybean, and sunflower oils. A number of foods are naturally high in oils, such as avocados, olives, nuts, and some fish. Federal dietary guidelines [found at https://www.Health.Gov/dietaryguidelines external link encourage americans to replace solid fats with oils when possible.
    • Oils—fats that are liquid at room temperature. Oils come from many different plants and some fish. Some common oils include canola, corn, olive, peanut, safflower, soybean, and sunflower oils. A number of foods are naturally high in oils such as nuts, olives, some fish, and avocados. Foods that are mainly made up of oil include mayonnaise, certain salad dressings, and soft (tub or squeeze) margarine with no trans fats. Oils are high in monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fats, and lower in saturated fats than solid fats. A few plant oils, termed tropical oils, including coconut oil, palm oil and palm kernel oil, are high in saturated fats and for nutritional purposes should be considered as solid fats. Partially hydrogenated oils that contain trans fats should also be considered as solid fats for nutritional purposes. (see fats.)
    • One of the three types of nutrients that provides calories to the body. Protein is an essential nutrient that helps build many parts of the body, including muscle, bone, skin, and blood. Protein provides 4 calories per gram and is found in foods like meat, fish, poultry, eggs, dairy products, beans, nuts, and tofu.
    • One of three macronutrients in food that provide calories,
    • Organic substances that are required by the body in
    • Ounce-equivalent (oz-eq)—the amount of a food product that is considered equal to 1 ounce from the grain or protein foods food group. An oz-eq for some foods may be less than a measured ounce in weight if the food is concentrated or low in water content (nuts, peanut butter, dried meats, flour) or more than a measured ounce in weight if the food contains a large amount of water (tofu, cooked beans, cooked rice or pasta).
    • Overweight
    • Overweight 85th to less than the 95th percentile 25.0 to 29.9 kg/m2
    • Overweight overweight refers to an excessive amount of body weight that includes muscle, bone, fat, and water. A person who has a body mass index (bmi) of 25 to 29.9 [see body mass index] is considered overweight. It is important to remember that although bmi is related to the amount of body fat, bmi does not directly measure body fat. As a result, some people, such as athletes, may have a bmi that identifies them as overweight even though they do not have excess body fat.

      Glossary of diet and nutritional terms P

    • P paleolithic. Human cultures of the pleistocene epoch, from about one million to 10,000 years ago.
    • Pamabrom. A mild diuretic found in several overthe-counter compounds for the relief of premenstrual discomfort and water retention.
    • Pancha karma. An intensive one- to two-week ritual of detoxification practiced in ayurvedic medicine that includes enemas, bloodletting, and nasal irrigation as well as fasting.
    • Pancreas. The pancreas is a flat, glandular organ lying below the stomach. It secretes the hormones insulin and glucagon that control blood sugar levels and also secretes pancreatic enzymes in the small intestine for the breakdown of fats and proteins.
    • Parasite. An organism that lives in or on a host; it obtains nourishment from the host without benefiting or killing the host. The parasites responsible for foodborne illnesses are mostly single-cell organisms such as amoeba, giardia, and trichomonas, while others have a worm-like appearance.
    • Parasitic. Feeding off another organism.
    • Parasympathetic nervous system (psns). The part of the autonomic nervous system that stimulates the secretion of saliva, speeds up peristalsis, and increases the flow of blood to the stomach and intestines.
    • Parkinson’s disease. An incurable nervous disorder marked by symptoms of trembling hands and a slow, shuffling walk.
    • Paroxetine. An antidepressant drug sold under the brand name paxil.
    • Pasteurization. A process for partial sterilization of milk or beverage juices by raising the liquid to a temperature that destroys disease organisms without changing its basic taste or appearance. Pasteurized fruit or vegetable juices are considered unsuitable for juice fasts on the grounds that pasteurization destroys important nutrients in the juices.
    • Pathogen. An organism that causes a disease.
    • Pau d’arco. A medicinal bark derived from a tree native to the amazon rainforest. Pau d’arco is often brewed as a tea and taken as a diuretic or anti-inflammatory preparation.
    • Peak bone mass. The highest level of bone strength generally reached in the mid 20’s.
    • Pectin. A water-soluble heterosaccharide (complex molecule composed of a sugar molecule and a non-sugar component) found in the cell walls of higher plants. It is used primarily as a gelling agent in making jams and jellies, but can also be taken by mouth as a form of plant fiber to relieve constipation.
    • Pemmican. Dried meat pounded into a powder and mixed with hot fats and dried fruits or berries to make a loaf or small cakes.
    • Pepsin. A protease enzyme in the gastric juices of carnivorous and omnivorous animals that breaks down the proteins found in meat. Its existence in humans is considered evidence that humans evolved as omnivores.
    • Perennial herb. A plant that lives for several years with new growth appearing each year.
    • Perennial. Reoccurring, as a plant that comes back for more than one growing season.
    • Perianal abscess. Abscess that can occur when the tiny anal glands that open on the inside of the anus become blocked and infected by bacteria. When pus develops, an abscess forms.
    • Peripheral vascular disease. Diseases of any blood vessels except those that supply blood to the heart.
    • Peristalsis. A sequence of muscle contractions that progressively squeeze one small section of the digestive tract and then the next to push food along the tract, something like pushing toothpaste out of its tube.
    • Peroxides. Peroxides are highly reactive free radical molecules, used as powerful bleaching agents and as disinfectant. In the body, they form as intermediate compounds, for example during the oxidation of lipids, and may damage tissues.
    • Personal trainer. An individual specializing in diet and exercise who works with clients on an individual basis.
    • Pervasive developmental disorder. An impairment in the development of social skills.
    • Pesce/pollo vegetarian. A vegetarian who avoids the use of red meat but will include fish (pesce in italian) or chicken (pollo in italian) in the diet.
    • Ph. A measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution. Solutions with a ph below 7 are considered acidic while those above 7 are alkaline. A ph of exactly 7 (pure water) is neutral.
    • Pharynx. Part of the neck and throat that connects the mouth to the esophagus.
    • Phentermine. An anorectic drug sold under a large number of brand names.
    • Phenylalanine.An essential amino acid that cannot be consumed by people with a metabolic disease known as phenylketonuria (pku).
    • Phenylketonuria (pku). A rare inherited metabolic disorder resulting in accumulation of phenylalanine, an amino acid, in the body. It can lead to mental retardation and seizures. People with pku should not use products containing the artificial sweetener aspartame because it is broken down into phenylalanine (and other products) during digestion.
    • Phospholipid. A type of fat used to build cell membranes.
    • Phycocyanin. A protein found in spirulina that gives the alga its blue color. Phycocyanin has antiinflammatory effects.
    • Phytate. Phytic acid; an acid in cereal grains that interferes with the intestinal absorption of minerals such as calcium and magnesium.
    • Phytochemicals. A nonnutritive bioactive plant substance, such as a flavonoid or carotenoid, considered to have a beneficial effect on human health.
    • Phytoestrogens. Compounds that occur naturally in plants and under certain circumstances can have actions like human estrogen. When eaten they bind to estrogen receptors and may act in a similar way to oestrogen.
    • Pita. Pitta; pita bread; a round, double-layered or pocket flatbread made from wheat and yeast.
    • Pituitary gland. A small gland at the base of the brain that produces many regulating hormones.
    • Placebo effect.A term that describes the improvement in symptoms that some patients experience when they are given a placebo (sugar pill or other inert substance that does not contain any medication) as part of a clinical trial. Patients with functional dyspepsia show a high rate of placebo effect in trials of new medications for the disorder.
    • Plaque. Material forming deposits on the surface of the teeth, which may promote bacterial growth and decay.
    • Plasma. The liquid part of the blood and lymphatic fluid, which makes up about half of its volume. It is 92% water, 7% protein and 1% minerals.
    • Polar. Containing regions of positive and negative charge; likely to be soluble in water.
    • Polycystic ovary syndrome. A condition in which cysts in the ovary interfere with normal ovulation and menstruation.
    • Polymorphism. A gene that exists in variant or allelic forms.
    • Polyol. An alcohol containing more than two hydroxyl (oh) groups, such as sugar alcohols, inositol.
    • Polypeptide. A molecule made up of a string of amino acids. A protein is an example of a polypeptide.
    • Polysaccharide. Any of a class of carbohydrates, such as starch, amylose, amylopectin and cellulose, consisting of several monosaccharides.
    • Polyunsaturated fatty acid.A fatty acid molecule with two or more double bonds, known to be beneficial to health when consumed in moderate amounts.
    • Polyuria. An excessive production of urine.
    • Pomelo. A large pear-shaped citrus fruit with a thick rind that was crossed with the sweet orange in the west indies to produce the modern grapefruit.
    • Post-prandial reactive hyperinsulinemia. A condition resulting from excess insulin production after eating.
    • Postpartum. This refers to the period of time after childbirth.
    • Pre-loading. Administering in advance, such as drinking water prior to exercise that is likely to cause water loss.
    • Prebiotics. Substances that help manage bacteria. Two principal types commonly used are the mannanoligosaccharides (mos) that bind potentially harmful bacteria in the gut and allow beneficial bacteria to dominate, and fructanoligosaccharides (fos) that deliver fructans into the fore gut to ’feed’ the acid producing bacteria.
    • Premenstrual syndrome (pms). A syndrome that involves symptoms that occur in relation to the menstrual cycle and which interfere with the woman’s life.
    • Premier study. A research study that tested the effects of comprehensive and simultaneous lifestyle changes on blood pressure—weight loss, exercise, and a healthy diet.
    • Primary pulmonary hypertension. Abnormally high blood pressure in the arteries of the lungs, with no other heart disease causing this problem.
    • Probiotics. Probiotics are dietary supplements containing potentially beneficial bacteria or yeast.
    • Procyanidin. These are associated with flavanoid antioxidants derived from grape seed extract, grape skin and red wine.Like quercetin and resveratrol they have many health-promoting benefits.
    • Progesterone.A female steroid hormone secreted by the ovary; it is produced by the placenta in large quantities during pregnancy.
    • Prokinetic drugs. A class of medications given to strengthen the motility of the digestive tract.
    • Prolapse. The falling down or slipping out of place of an organ or part.
    • Proscription. Prohibitions, rules against.
    • Prostaglandins. A group of biologically important molecules that have hormone-like actions. They help regulate expansion of the blood vessels and the airways, control inflammation, are found in semen, and cause the uterus to contract. They are made from fatty acids.
    • Proteases. Enzymes that break peptide bonds between the amino acids of proteins.
    • Protein biosynthesis. Biochemical process, in which proteins are synthesized from simple amino acids.
    • Protein sequence. The arrangement of amino acids in a protein.
    • Protein.A nutrient that helps build many parts of the body, including muscle and bone. Protein provides 4 calories per gram. It is found in foods like meat, fish, poultry, eggs, dairy products, beans, nuts, and tofu.
    • Proteins. These are large molecules which are made up of thousands of amino acids. The primary function of protein is growth and repair of body tissues.
    • Proteome. All of the proteins expressed in a cell, tissue, or organism.
    • Protozoan. Any member of a phylum of onecelled eukaryotes (organisms with nuclei) that are able to move but are not animals in the strict sense. The organism that causes giardiasis is a protozoan.
    • Provitamin. A substance that the body can convert into a vitamin.
    • Psoriasis.A chronic disease of the skin marked by red patches covered with white scales.
    • Psychoanalysis. A psychological theory that concerns the mental functions of humans both on the conscious and unconscious levels.
    • Puberty. A stage of physiological maturity that marks the start of being capable of sexual reproduction.
    • Pulmonary embolism.Lodging of a blood clot in the lumen (open cavity) of a pulmonary artery, causing a severe dysfunction in respiratory function. Pulmonary emboli often originate in the deep leg veins and travel to the lungs through blood circulation.
    • Pulses. Peas, beans and lentils are collectively known as pulses. The term is reserved for crops harvested solely for the dry grain, so excludes green beans and green peas.
    • Purging. A behavior associated with eating disorders that includes self-induced vomiting and abuse of laxatives as well as diuretics.
    • Purines. Substances in dna that can be metabolized into uric acid.
    • Purslane. A broad-leafed plant native to india, commonly considered a weed in the united states.
    • Pycnogenol. Trade name of a commercial mixture of bioflavonoids (catechins, phenolic acid, proan, thocyanidins) that exhibits antioxidative activity.
    • Pancreas
    • Pancreas (pan-kree-as) a gland and an organ that makes enzymes to help the body break down and use nutrients in food. The pancreas also produces the hormone insulin and releases it into the bloodstream to help the body control blood sugar levels.
    • People on a vlcd have an increased risk of developing gallstones from an increase of cholesterol content in the bile produced by the liver.
    • Percent daily value
    • Physical activity
    • Physical activity
    • Physical activity any form of exercise or movement. Physical activity may include planned activities such as walking, running, strength training, basketball, or other sports. Physical activity may also include daily activities such as mowing the lawn, washing the car, taking the stairs instead of the elevator, and walking the dog. Federal guidelines on physical activity recommend that adults get at least 150 minutes (30 minutes a day, 5 days a week) of moderate-intensity physical activity for general health benefits. Adults who wish to lose weight or maintain weight loss may need more physical activity, such as 300 minutes (60 minutes a day, 5 days a week). Children should get at least 60 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity daily.
    • Physical activity—any bodily movement produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle that increases energy expenditure above a basal level; generally refers to the subset of physical activity that enhances health.
    • Phytoestrogens
    • Phytoestrogens are a type of plant chemical that have a similar structure to the hormone oestrogen, however they are not identical in their effects. Two major types of phytoestrogens are isoflavones and lignans. Phytoestrogens occur naturally in legumes, wholegrain cereals, nuts and seeds, and many vegetables and fruits
    • Plant based eating
    • Plant constituents of food that are resistant to digestion by human gastrointestinal secretions; also called roughage. “crude fiber” is what remains after laboratory breakdown of food with acid and alkali.
    • Plant sterols
    • Plant sterols (also known as phytosterols) are substances that can help lower your cholesterol. They are found naturally in very small amounts in a variety of plant foods such as grains, vegetables, fruit, legumes, nuts and seeds. Only small amounts can be obtained through our diets, so enriched foods are needed to help us achieve an effective intake of plant sterols that will lower high cholesterol.
    • Point-of-purchase—a place where sales are made. Various intervention strategies have been proposed to affect individuals’ purchasing decisions at the point of purchase, such as board or menu labeling with various amounts of nutrition information or shelf tags in grocery stores.
    • Polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats – (good) can help reduce cholesterol. They are found in sunflower, olive, canola oils and margarines as well as many nuts, seeds and soy foods. Omega -3 is an important polyunsaturated fat found in fatty fish such as salmon and in the ancient wholegrain salba.
    • Polyunsaturated fat
    • Polyunsaturated fatty acids (pufas)—fatty acids that have two or more double bonds and are usually liquid at room temperature. Primary sources are vegetable oils and some nuts and seeds. Pufas provide essential fats such as n-3 and n-6 fatty acids.
    • Polyunsaturated fat (poly-un-satch-er-ay-ted) this type of fat is liquid at room temperature. There are two types of polyunsaturated fatty acids (pufas): omega-6 and omega-3. Omega-6 fatty acids are found in liquid vegetable oils, such as corn oil, safflower oil, and soybean oil. Omega-3 fatty acids come from plant sources—including canola oil, flaxseed, soybean oil, and walnuts—and from fish and shellfish.
    • Portion size
    • Portion size the amount of a food served or eaten in one occasion. A portion is not a standard amount. The amount of food it includes may vary by person and occasion [see serving size].
    • Portion size—the amount of a food served or consumed in one eating occasion. A portion is not a standardized amount, and the amount considered to be a portion is subjective and varies.
    • Potassium
    • Potassium and sodium work together in the body to regulate the balance between water and acidity in the blood. Potassium is also important for nerve function to the muscles which causes muscles (including the heart) to contract. If there is a deficiency in potassium, heart rhythm can be altered. Potassium can be found in fruits, vegetables, grain foods, meats and milk.
    • Poultry—all forms of chicken, turkey, duck, geese, guineas, and game birds (e.G., quail, pheasant).
    • Prehypertension—see hypertension.
    • Previously known as “insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus,” (iddm) or “juvenile diabetes.” type 1 diabetes is a life-long condition in which the pancreas stops making insulin. Without insulin, the body is not able to use glucose (blood sugar) for energy. To treat the disease, a person must inject insulin, follow a diet plan, exercise daily, and test blood sugar several times a day. Type 1 diabetes usually begins before the age of 30.
    • Previously known as “noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus” (niddm) or “adult-onset diabetes.” type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes mellitus. About 90 to 95 percent of people who have diabetes have type 2 diabetes. People with type 2 diabetes produce insulin, but either do not make enough insulin or their bodies do not use the insulin they make. Most of the people who have this type of diabetes are overweight. Therefore, people with type 2 diabetes may be able to control their condition by losing weight through diet and exercise. They may also need to inject insulin or take medicine along with continuing to follow a healthy program of diet and exercise. Although type 2 diabetes commonly occurs in adults, an increasing number of children and adolescents who are overweight are also developing type 2 diabetes.
    • Processed meat and processed poultry—all meat or poultry products preserved by smoking, curing, salting, and/or the addition of chemical preservatives. Processed meats and poultry include all types of meat or poultry sausages (bologna, frankfurters, luncheon meats and loaves, sandwich spreads, viennas, chorizos, kielbasa, pepperoni, salami, and summer sausages), bacon, smoked or cured ham or pork shoulder, corned beef, pastrami, pig’s feet, beef jerky, marinated chicken breasts, and smoked turkey products.
    • Processed meats and poultry include all types of meat or
    • Protein
    • Protein is important for growth of body cells and makes up virtually every part of the body. Protein can be found in dried peas, soy and baked beans, peanut butter, nuts, eggs, cheese, lean meat, fish and wholegrains.
    • Protein (pro-teen) one of the nutrients that provide calories to the body. Protein is an essential nutrient that helps build many parts of the body, including blood, bone, muscle, and skin. Protein provides 4 calories per gram and is found in foods like beans, dairy products, eggs, fish, meat, nuts, poultry, and tofu.
    • Protein—one of the macronutrients; a major functional and structural component of every animal cell. Proteins are composed of amino acids, nine of which are indispensable (essential), meaning they cannot be synthesized by humans and therefore must be obtained from the diet. The quality of dietary protein is determined by its amino acid profile relative to human requirements as determined by the body’s requirements for growth, maintenance, and repair. Protein quality is determined by two factors: digestibility and amino acid composition.
    • Purslane has the highest level of omega-3 fatty acids of any leafy vegetable, however, and is eaten fresh in salads or cooked like spinach as part of the cretan diet.
    • Glossary of diet and nutritional terms Q

    • Q quercetin. A natural compound which belongs to a group of plant pigments called flavonoids that are largely responsible for the colours of many fruits, flowers, and vegetables. They have many health-promoting benefits that may protect against cancer and cardiovascular disease.
    • Quinoa. A species of goosefoot that originated in the high andes and is raised as a food crop for its edible seeds, which have an unusually high protein content (12–18 percent). Quinoa is considered a pseudo-cereal rather than a true cereal grain because it is not a grass.
    • Glossary of diet and nutritional terms R

    • R racemic. A chemical term, relating to the way a compound turns a bean of light. Racemic compounds are composed of equal amounts of left turning and right turning molecules. Molecules which turn a beam of light to the right are dextrorotatory while those which turn a beam to the left are levorotatory.
    • Radiopharmaceutical. A drug that is radioactive. It is used for diagnosing or treating diseases.
    • Rancid. Having a bad or ‘‘off’’ smell or taste as a result of oxidation.
    • Raw foodism. A term that refers to a group of dietary regimens composed entirely of foods that have not been raised above a certain temperature. Many raw foodists are vegans, although some eat raw meat or fish and use unpasteurized dairy products.
    • Reactive nitrogen species (rns). Highly reactive chemicals, containing nitrogen, that react easily with other molecules, resulting in potentially damaging modifications.
    • Reactive oxygen species (ros). Damaging molecules, including oxygen radicals such as superoxide radical and other highly reactive forms of oxygen that can harm biomolecules and contribute to disease states.
    • Recommended dietary allowances (rda). The average daily dietary intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (approximately 98 percent) healthy individuals.
    • Rectum. Short, muscular tube that forms the lowest portion of the large intestine and connects it to the anus.
    • Regurgitational valvular heart disease. A type of damage to the heart valves which allows blood to leak back through the valve.
    • Rennet. An enzyme used to coagulate milk, derived from the mucous membranes lining the stomachs of unweaned calves.
    • Reservoir. A term used for animals that can carry parasites that cause disease in humans without falling ill themselves. Beavers, dogs, cats, cattle, and horses are common reservoirs of g. Lamblia.
    • Resistance training. Also called strength or weight training, this type of exercise increases muscle strength by working the muscles against a weight or 1053 glossary force. Free weights, weight machines, resistance bands, or a person’s body weight can be used in resistance training.
    • Resveratrol. A natural compound found in grapes, mulberries, peanuts and red wine that may protect against cancer and cardiovascular disease.
    • Retina. The layer of light-sensitive cells on the back of the eyeball that function in converting light into nerve impulses.
    • Retinol. Also known as vitamin a. This is a fat soluble vitamin found in animal food sources.
    • Retrovirus. A single-stranded virus that replicates by reverse transcription to produce dna copies that are incorporated into the genome of infected cells.
    • Rh factor. Rh factor is a subset of blood type it may be either positive or negative.
    • Rheumatism. A painful condition of the joints or muscles.
    • Rheumatoid arthritis (ra). An autoimmune disorder that can affect organ systems as well as the joints. It is much less common that oa but is potentially much more serious.
    • Rheumatologist. A physician, usually a pediatrician or internist, who has additional specialized training in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases that affect the bones, muscles, and joints.
    • Rhizome. An underground creeping stem.
    • Ribonucleic acid (rna). A molecule that helps decode genetic information (dna) and is necessary for protein synthesis.
    • Rickets. The softening of the bones in children leading to fractures and deformity, caused by vitamin d deficiency.
    • Rome criteria. A set of guidelines for defining and diagnosing functional dyspepsia and other stomach disorders, first drawn up in the mid-1980s by a group of specialists in digestive disorders meeting in rome, italy. The rome criteria continue to be revised and updated every few years.
    • Recommended dietary allowances (rda)—the average daily dietary intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all (97 to 98%) healthy individuals in a particular life stage and sex group.
    • Recommended daily intake
    • Recommended daily intake (rdi) is the average daily amount of all known nutrients that need to be consumed to maintain good health.
    • Reference intakes for all essential nutrients and stays
    • Refined
    • Refined grains any grain that is not a whole grain is a refined grain. This includes grains and grain products missing the bran, endosperm, and/or germ. Many refined grains are low in fiber and enriched with iron, niacin, riboflavin, and thiamin and fortified with folic acid as required by u.S. Regulations. Some examples of refined grain products are white flour, white bread and tortillas, and white rice.
    • Refined grains—grains and grain products with the bran and germ removed; any grain product that is not a whole-grain product. Many refined grains are low in fiber but enriched with thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and iron, and fortified with folic acid.
    • Refined refers to the process where foods are stripped of their coarse outer layers and many nutritional aspects. For example, wholegrain wheat is refined to produce white flour.
    • Registered dietitian (r.D.) a person who has studied diet and nutrition at a college program approved by the academy of nutrition and dietetics (formerly the american dietetic association). To become an r.D., a person must complete 900 hours of supervised practical experience accredited by the commission on the accreditation for dietetics education and must pass an exam.
    • Registered dietitian (r.D.)
    • Resistant starch
    • Resistant starch is a type of starch found in plant foods that escapes digestion in the small intestine. Resistant starch may provide similar benefits to other types of fibre, such as helping to prevent constipation. Foods containing resistant starch include firm bananas, roasted chickpeas, boiled long grain white rice, baked beans, cooked and cooled potato, as well as cornflakes.
    • Glossary of diet and nutritional terms S

    • S salt. In chemistry, an ionic crystalline compound of positively charged ions and negatively charged ions such that the product is neutral (without a net charge).
    • Satiety. The quality or state of feeling comfortably full. It is sometimes used as a criterion for evaluating people’s satisfaction with diets or diet products.
    • Saturated fat. Fats found in animal products and in coconut and palm oils that are a major dietary cause of high ldl.
    • Saturated fatty acid. A fatty acid molecule with no double bonds, known to be detrimental to health when consumed in large amounts.
    • Schizophrenia. A mental illness in which the person suffers from distorted thinking, hallucinations, and a reduced ability to feel normal emotions.
    • Scleroderma. An autoimmune disease with many consequences, including esophageal wall thickening.
    • Scurvy. A deficiency disease caused by a lack of dietary vitamin c, characterized by spongy gums, eventual loss of teeth, and bleeding into the skin and mucous membranes.
    • Sebaceous glands. Small glands in the skin, usually part of hair follicles, that produce a fatty substance called sebum.
    • Sebum. The fatty substance secreted by sebaceous glands. It helps moisturize and protect skin and hair.
    • Sedative. Medicines that increase drowsiness and calmness.
    • Selenocysteine. Unusual amino acid consisting of cysteine bound to selenium. The process of inserting selenocysteine into proteins is unique to cysteine, and occurs in organisms ranging from bacteria to man.
    • Selenoprotein.Enzyme that requires selenium to function. At least eleven have been identified.
    • Serotonin. Chemical used by nerve cells to communicate with one another.
    • Sertraline. An antidepressant drug sold under the brand name zoloft.
    • Serum cholesterol. Cholesterol that travels in the blood.
    • Serum. The clear fluid part of the blood that remains after clotting. Serum contains no blood cells or clotting proteins, but does contain electrolytes.
    • Set point. In medicine, a term that refers to body temperature, body weight, or other measurements that a human or other organism tries to keep at a particular value. The shangri-la diet is said to work by lowering the dieter’s set point for body weight.
    • Short bowel syndrome. Problems related to absorbing nutrients after removal of part of the small intestine.
    • Sialagogue. Promotes the flow of saliva.
    • Sickle cell anemia. A genetic disorder in which red blood cells take on an unusual shape, leading to other problems with the blood.
    • Simple carbohydrates. Simple sugars; monosaccharides, such as fructose found in fruit, and disaccharides made up of two sugar units, such as lactose and sucrose or table sugar.
    • Small intestine. The part of the digestive tract located between the stomach and the large intestine. It consists of the duodenum, the jejunum, and the ileum.
    • Smoothie.A blended beverage resembling a milkshake in texture but often made with nondairy ingredients. Slim-fast and other diet product companies market prepackaged smoothies as well as shakes.
    • Snp. Single nucleotide polymorphism; a variant dna sequence in which the base of a single nucleotide has been replaced by a different base.
    • Sodium benzoate. A type of preservative used in processed foods known to cause food sensitivity in some individuals when consumed in the diet.
    • Sodium metabisulphite. A type of sulphite preservative used in processed foods known to cause food sensitivity in some individuals when consumed in the diet.
    • Soluble fiber.The part of a food plant that resists digestion and absorption in the human small intestine but is fermented partially or completely in the large intestine. This fermentation yields short-chain fatty acids, which are beneficial to health by stabilizing blood glucose levels, lowering blood cholesterol levels, and supporting the immune system.
    • Soluble. Capable of being dissolved.
    • Sorbitol. Sugar alcohol food additive used as a sweetener in commercially prepared low sugar foods and gum.
    • Spa. A hotel or resort for relaxation or health and fitness-related activities. Some people undergoing a juice fast do so at a spa in order to combine the fast with colonics, massage therapy, and other practices associated with juice fasts. The english word spa comes from the name of a famous health resort in belgium.
    • Sports drink. Any beverage containing carbohydrates, electrolytes, and other nutrients as well as water, intended to help athletes rehydrate after training or competition. Sports drinks are isotonic, which means that they contain the same proportion of water, electrolytes, and carbohydrates as the human body.
    • Squamous epithelial cells.Thin, flat cells found in layers or sheets covering surfaces such as skin and the linings of blood vessels and esophagus.
    • Starch. A naturally abundant nutrient carbohydrate found in seeds, fruits, tubers, and roots.
    • Starvation. A long-term consequence of food deprivation.
    • Steatorrhea.The passage of large amounts of fat or grease in the stool, caused by failure to absorb it during digestion. Steatorrhea is often associated with chronic giardiasis.
    • Steroid. A family of compounds that share a similar chemical structure. This family includes the estrogen and testosterone, vitamin d, cholesterol, and the drugs cortisone and prendisone.
    • Sterol. The building blocks of steroid hormones; a type of lipid.
    • Stimulant. An agent, especially a chemical agent such as caffeine, that temporarily arouses or accelerates physiological or organic activity.
    • Stroke. The sudden death of some brain cells due to a lack of oxygen when the blood flow to the brain is impaired by blockage or rupture of an artery.
    • Subjective. Based on feelings and opinions.
    • Succulent.Plants with large, fleshy leaves, stems, and roots capable of storing a lot of water. These plants grow in dry environments.
    • Sucrose. The natural sweetener commonly used as table sugar; sucrose is a compound of two simple sugars, glucose and fructose. It is used as the standard for measuring the sweetening power of high-intensity artificial sweeteners.
    • Sulphite. A type of preservative used in processed foods known to cause food sensitivity in some individuals when consumed in the diet.
    • Sulphur dioxide. A type of preservative used in processed foods known to cause food sensitivity in some individuals when consumed in the diet.
    • Sympathetic nervous system. The part of the autonomic nervous system that speeds up heart rate, increases lung capacity, increases the flow of blood to skeletal muscles, and diverts blood flow from the digestive tract.
    • Synaptic vesicles. Also called neurotransmitter vesicles, these pouches store the various neurotransmitters that are released by nerve cells into the synaptic cleft of a synapse.
    • Syndrome x. A group of risk factors that together, put someone at higher risk of coronary artery disease. These risk factors include: central obesity (excessive fat tissue in the abdominal region), glucose intolerance, high triglycerides and low hdl cholesterol, and high blood pressure.
    • Systemic lupus erythematosus (sle). A serious autoimmune disease of connective tissue that affects mainly women. It can cause joint pain, rash, and inflammation of organs such as the kidney.
    • Saturated and trans fats – (‘bad’) can raise cholesterol levels and therefore increase your risk of heart disease. Saturated fats are present in many foods and are generally found in higher amounts in animal-based products and commercially baked products. Trans fats can be found in margarine and baked goods such as biscuits and pastries. It is best to eat less of foods that are high in saturated fats and trans fats, or to select lean or low-fat alternatives.
    • Saturated fat
    • Saturated fat is fat that consists of triglycerides containing only saturated fatty acid radicals. There are several kinds of naturally occurring saturated fatty acids, which differ by the number of carbon atoms, ranging from 3 carbons (propionic acid) to 36 (hexatriacontanoic acid). Saturated fatty acids have no double bonds between the carbon atoms of the fatty acid chain and are thus fully saturated with hydrogen atoms.
    • Saturated fatty acids—fatty acids that have no double bonds. Fats high in saturated fatty acids are usually solid at room temperature. Major sources include animal products such as meats and dairy products, and tropical oils such as coconut or palm oils.
    • Saturated fat (satch-er-ay-ted) this type of fat is solid at room temperature. Saturated fat is found in full-fat dairy products (like butter, cheese, cream, regular ice cream, and whole milk), coconut oil, lard, palm oil, ready-to-eat meats, and the skin and fat of chicken and turkey, among other foods. Saturated fats have the same number of calories as other types of fat, and may contribute to weight gain if eaten in excess. Eating a diet high in saturated fat also raises blood cholesterol and risk of heart disease.
    • Savory food items eaten as a single entity that include
    • Screen time—time spent in front of a computer, television, video or computer game system, smart phone or tablet, or related device.
    • Seafood
    • Seafood—marine animals that live in the sea and in freshwater lakes and rivers. Seafood includes fish (e.G., salmon, tuna, trout, and tilapia) and shellfish (e.G., shrimp, crab, and oysters).
    • Sedentary behavior—any waking activity predominantly done while in a sitting or reclining posture. A behavior that expends energy at or minimally above a person’s resting level (between 1.0 and 1.5 metabolic equivalents) is considered sedentary behavior.
    • See bariatric surgery.
    • See high-density lipoprotein.
    • See low-density lipoprotein.
    • Serving size on the nutrition facts label is the amount
    • Serving size
    • Serving size a standard amount of a food, such as a cup or an ounce.
    • Serving size—a standardized amount of a food, such as a cup or an ounce, used in providing information about a food within a food group, such as in dietary guidance. Serving size on the nutrition facts label is determined based on the reference amounts customarily consumed (racc) for foods that have similar dietary usage, product characteristics, and customarily consumed amounts for consumers to make “like product” comparisons. (see portion size.)
    • Shortfall nutrient—see nutrient of concern.
    • Simple carbohydrate
    • Social-ecological model—a framework developed to illustrate how sectors, settings, social and cultural norms, and individual factors converge to influence individual food and physical activity choices.
    • Sodium
    • Sodium is an electrolyte that helps maintain acid-base balance of the blood, helps regulate blood pressure and water balance in cells and aids in muscle contraction and nerve impulse transmission. However, too much salt can lead to high blood pressure and stroke. Highly processed foods such as crisps and processed meats usually contain large amounts of sodium.
    • Sodium see dietary sodium.
    • Solid fats contain more saturated fats and/or trans fats
    • Solid fats these types of fats are usually not liquid at room temperature. Solid fats are found in most animal foods but also can be made from vegetable oils through hydrogenation. Some common solid fats in our diet include beef fat, butter, chicken fat, coconut oil, palm oil, pork fat (lard), shortening, and stick margarine. Foods high in solid fats include full-fat (regular) cheese, cream, ice cream, and whole milk; bacon, poultry skin, regular ground beef, sausages, and well-marbled cuts of meats; and many baked goods (such as cookies, crackers, croissants, donuts, and pastries).
    • Solid fats—fats that are usually not liquid at room temperature. Solid fats are found in animal foods, except for seafood, and can be made from vegetable oils through hydrogenation. Some tropical oil plants, such as coconut and palm, are considered as solid fats due to their fatty acid composition. The fat component of milk and cream (butter) is solid at room temperature. Solid fats contain more saturated fats and/or trans fats than liquid oils (e.G., soybean, canola, and corn oils), with lower amounts of monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids. Common fats considered to be solid fats include: butter, beef fat (tallow), chicken fat, pork fat (lard), shortening, coconut oil, palm oil and palm kernel oil. Foods high in solid fats include: full-fat (regular) cheeses, creams, whole milk, ice cream, marbled cuts of meats, regular ground beef, bacon, sausages, poultry skin, and many baked goods made with solid fats (such as cookies, crackers, doughnuts, pastries, and croissants). (see fats and nutrient dense)
    • Soluble fibre
    • Soluble fibre is beneficial to help lower blood cholesterol levels and, in people with diabetes, helps to control blood sugar. Soluble fibre is found in fruits, vegetables, dried peas, soybeans, lentils, oats, rice and barley.
    • Some tropical oil plants, such as coconut and palm, are
    • Starch
    • Starches—many glucose units linked together into long chains. Examples of foods containing starch include vegetables (e.G., potatoes, carrots), grains (e.G., brown rice, oats, wheat, barley, corn), and legumes (beans and peas; e.G., kidney beans, garbanzo beans, lentils, split peas).
    • Stroke a stroke occurs when blood flow to your brain stops. Within minutes, brain cells begin to die. There are two kinds of stroke. The more common kind, called ischemic stroke, is caused by a blood clot that blocks or plugs a blood vessel in the brain. The other kind, called hemorrhagic stroke, is caused by a blood vessel that breaks and bleeds into the brain. “Mini-strokes”, or transient ischemic attacks (tias), occur when the blood supply to the brain is stopped for a short time.
    • Sugar alcohols
    • Sugar composed of one or two sugar molecules.
    • Sugar-sweetened beverages
    • Sugar-sweetened beverages drinks that are sweetened with added sugars often add a large number of calories. These beverages include, but are not limited to, energy and sports drinks, fruit drinks, soda, and fruit juices.
    • Sugar-sweetened beverages—liquids that are sweetened with various forms of added sugars. These beverages include, but are not limited to, soda (regular, not sugar-free), fruitades, sports drinks, energy drinks, sweetened waters, and coffee and tea beverages with added sugars. Also called calorically sweetened beverages. (see added sugars and carbohydrates: sugars.)
    • Sugars
    • Sugars, added
    • Sugars—composed of one unit (a monosaccharide, such as glucose or fructose) or two joined units (a disaccharide, such as lactose or sucrose). Sugars include those occurring naturally in foods and beverages, those added to foods and beverages during processing and preparation, and those consumed separately. (see added sugars.)
    • Supplements are used as antioxidant.
    • Surgery on the stomach and/or intestines to help the patient with extreme obesity lose weight. Bariatric surgery is a weight-loss method used for people who have a body mass index (bmi) above 40. Surgery may also be an option for people with a bmi between 35 and 40 who have health problems like heart disease or type 2 diabetes.
    • Symptoms include sudden shortness of breath, chest pain (worse with breathing), and rapid heart and respiratory rates.
    • Syrups and other caloric sweeteners used as a sweetener
    • Glossary of diet and nutritional terms T

    • T target heart rate. A method using pulse measurements to monitor progress while exercising. A target heart rate is typically 50-85 percent of an individual’s maximum heart rate.
    • Tempeh. A food product made from whole fermented soybeans that originated in indonesia. It can be used as a meat substitute in vegan dishes or sliced and cooked in hot vegetable oil.
    • Testosterone. A male sex hormone responsible for secondary sex characteristics.
    • Textured vegetable protein (tvp). A meat substitute made from defatted soybean flour formed into a dough and cooked by steam while being forced through an extruder. It resembles ground beef in texture and can replace it in most recipes. Tvp is also known as textured soy protein or tsp.
    • Theobromine. A breakdown product of caffeine that is responsible for the diuretic effect of coffee and tea.
    • Thermogenesis. The generation of heat in the body.
    • Thermogenic. Producing heat. Relating to diet drugs the term is used to indicate a drug which causes increased use of calories without exercise.
    • Thrifty gene hypothesis. A hypothesis proposed in 1962 by james neel, a geneticist, to explain the epidemic of obesity in the modern world. The thrifty gene hypothesis holds that certain genes in humans maximize metabolic efficiency and food searching behavior, and that humans carrying these ‘‘thrifty’’ genes were more likely to survive during past periods of famine. The abundance of food in the modern world means that people with these genes are predisposed to obesity and other disorders related to overeating. The thrifty gene hypothesis has, however, been largely discarded in recent years.
    • Thyroid. A gland located beneath the voice box that produces thyroid hormone, a hormone that regulates growth and metabolism.
    • Tias typically last 2 to 30 minutes and can produce problems with vision, dizziness, weakness or trouble speaking.
    • Tofu. Bean curd; a soft food made by coagulating soy milk with an enzyme, calcium sulfate, or an organic acid, and pressing the resulting curds into blocks or chunks. Tofu is frequently used in vegetarian or vegan dishes as a meat or cheese substitute.
    • Tolerance. Adjustment of the body to a drug so that it takes more and more to produce the same physiological or psychological effect, or adjustment to a drug so that side effects are diminished.
    • Tonic. An agent that restores or increases body tone.
    • Topical. Referring to a type of medication that is applied to the surface of the body or instilled into the eye or ear. Some topical medications contain artificial preservatives.
    • Total cholesterol. The total amount of cholesterol in the blood. Cholesterol is a fat-like substance made in the body and present in many foods.
    • Tourette’s syndrome. A neurological disorder characterized by involuntary body movements called tics, and uncontrollable speech.
    • Toxin. A general term for something that harms or poisons the body.
    • Trace minerals. Minerals needed by the body in tiny, trace amounts (rda < 200mg/day). They include: selenium, iron, zinc, copper, manganese, molybdenum, chromium, arsenic, germanium, lithium, rubidium, tin.
    • Traditional chinese medicine (tcm). An ancient system of medicine based on maintaining a balance in vital energy or qi that controls emotions, spiritual, and 1056 glossary physical well being. Diseases and disorders result from imbalances in qi, and treatments such as massage, exercise, acupuncture, nutritional and herbal therapy is designed to restore balance and harmony to the body.
    • Tranquilizer. Medicine that reduces anxiety and tension.
    • Trans fatty acids. Monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fats where the double bonds create a linear formation. They are formed largely by the manufacture of partial hydrogenation of oils, which converts much of the oil into trans fat. Hydrogenated fats and trans fats are often used interchangably.
    • Transferrin. A protein synthesized in the liver that transports iron in the blood to red blood cells.
    • Transient ischemic attack (tia). A neurological event with the signs and symptoms of a stroke, but which go away within a short period of time. Also called a mini-stroke, a tia is due to a temporary lack of adequate blood and oxygen (ischemia) to the brain. This is often caused by the narrowing (or, less often, ulceration) of the carotid arteries (the major arteries in the neck that supply blood to the brain).
    • Transverse abdominis. A muscle layer of the wall of the abdomen.
    • Traveler’s diarrhea (td). A nonspecific term for a form of diarrhea that frequently affects tourists abroad. Td is the most common illness affecting visitors to other countries. Some cases of td are caused by g. Lamblia, but others result from infection with various bacteria, rotaviruses, and other intestinal parasites.
    • Triglyceride. A fat that comes from food or is made up of other energy sources in the body. Elevated triglyceride levels contribute to the development of atherosclerosis.
    • Triticale. A man-made hybrid plant that combines wheat and rye and that produces a higher protein flour.
    • Trophozoite. The active feeding stage in the life cycle of g. Lamblia. It is the trophozoites that multiply within the small intestine and cause the diarrhea and other symptoms of giardiasis.
    • Tropical sprue. A condition of unknown cause whereby abnormalities in the lining of the small intestine prevent the body from absorbing food normally.
    • Tryptophan. An amino acid that plays a role in the manufacture of serotonin.
    • Tuber. Swollen plant stem below the ground.
    • Tumor necrosis factor. A substance that is part of an inflammatory system and used as a marker to measure inflammation.
    • Turmeric. A perennial herb of the ginger family used as a coloring agent as well as a spice in food preparation. It is used in some traditional ayurvedic medicines for the relief of joint pain and inflammation.
    • Type ii diabetes. Inability to regulate the level of sugar in the blood due to a reduction in the number of insulin receptors on the body’s cells.
    • Table a6-1.Body mass index (bmi) and corresponding body weight categories for children and adults
    • Tempeh
    • Tempeh is a food made from fermented soybeans. It is high in protein and fibre.
    • Textured vegetable protein
    • Textured vegetable protein(tvp) is a meat substitute made from processed soybean protein (soy flour).
    • The dash eating plan is low in saturated fats and rich in
    • The glycaemic index (gi) is a system of classifying carbohydrate foods based on their effect on blood glucose (sugar) levels. Foods are given a rating between 0 and 100. Carbohydrate foods can be classified as having a low, moderate or high gi. Low gi foods are those that have a slower, more constant affect on a person’s blood sugar levels. That means, they break down slowly and generally provide a longer ‘feeling of fullness’. Taking this into consideration, a diet based on low gi foods can be useful to prevent overeating and maintain more optimal blood sugar levels.
    • The percent daily value (%dv) on the nutrition facts
    • The usa’s leading voluntary health organization solely dedicated to osteoporosis and bone health.
    • The addition of specific nutrients (I.E., iron, thiamin,
    • The aleurone is a single layer of cells between the endosperm and bran in wholegrains. It is officially part of the endosperm but during processing is lost along with the bran. It contains protein, fats, vitamins and minerals.
    • The amount of a food served or consumed in one eating
    • The amount of a nutrient (in grams, milligrams, or
    • The amount of energy, measured in calories, that a person uses. Calories are used by people to breath, circulate blood, digest food, and be physically active.
    • The balance between calories consumed through eating
    • The cause is inadequate supply of oxygen to the muscle usually caused by clogged blood vessels.
    • The deliberate addition of one or more essential nutrients
    • The germ is the embryo of a grain and is rich in protein, good fats, minerals, vitamin e and b vitamins.
    • The ingredient list on a food package is usually located
    • The largest prospective study of long-term successful weight loss. The nwcr is tracking over 5,000 individuals who have lost at least 30 pounds and kept it off for at least one year.
    • The major form of pharmacological treatment for hiv since 1996. Haart is a combination of several different antiretroviral drugs selected for patients on an individual basis. It is not a cure for hiv infection 1042 glossary but acts to slow the replication of the virus and discourage new mutations. Haart has a number of side effects that complicate maintaining good nutrition in hiv patients.
    • The membrane surrounding a cell that separates the cell
    • The most common monounsaturated fats are palmitoleic acid and oleic acid. They are found naturally in such foods as nuts and avocados; oleic acid is the main component of olive oil.
    • The set of chemical reactions that occur in living organisms
    • The symptoms usually begin 5 to 11 days before the start of menstruation and usually stop when menstruation begins, or shortly thereafter. Symptoms may include headache, swelling of ankles, feet, and hands, backache, abdominal cramps or heaviness, abdominal pain, bloating, or fullness, muscle spasms, breast tenderness, weight gain, recurrent cold sores, acne flare-ups, nausea, constipation or diarrhea, decreased coordination, food cravings, less tolerance for noises and lights, and painful menstruation.
    • The word ‘wholegrain’ refers to a grain food where all parts of the grain (the germ, endosperm and bran layer) are intact and retained. Examples include wholegrain wheat and wholegrain (brown) rice. If the grain has been cracked, crushed or flaked, then in order to be called ‘wholegrain’, it must retain nearly the same relative proportions of bran, germ and endosperm as the original grain.
    • Theory that the body naturally gravitates toward a given weight (largely determined by genes), as if it were set by a thermostat.
    • There are two kinds of carbohydrates—simple or complex. Simple carbohydrates include sugars that are a part of some foods, like fructose in fruit or lactose in milk, as well as sugars that may be added when foods are processed or prepared [see definition of added sugars]. Complex carbohydrates include those that come from legumes, such as peas or beans, starchy vegetables, and whole grain breads and cereals. Many complex carbohydrates are good sources of fiber.
    • There are two kinds of lipoproteins: high-density
    • There are two main types of vegetarian diets:
    • This disease is not associated with gluten enteropathy.
    • This is an alternative term that is used to describe vegetarian eating, or eating a diet that consists of predominately plant foods.
    • This process also is called renal dialysis.
    • To be licensed as a registered dietitian (rd) in the united states, a person must complete a bachelor’s degree in a nutrition-related field and pass a state licensing examination. Dietitians are also called nutritionists.
    • To fortify is to add nutrients to a food in levels higher than were originally present. Fortification can be mandatory to prevent a widespread nutritional deficiency, for example folate in bread, or voluntary to balance the total nutrient profile of a food.
    • Tofu
    • Tofu is a soft cheese-like food made by curdling soy milk. Also known as soybean curd.
    • Tolerable upper intake levels (ul)—the highest average daily nutrient intake level likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects for nearly all individuals in a particular life stage and sex group. As intake increases above the ul, the potential risk of adverse health effects increases.
    • Trans fatty acids
    • Trans fatty acids a type of fat produced when liquid fats (oils) are turned into solid fats through a chemical process called hydrogenation. Eating a large amount of trans fatty acid, or “Trans fats”, also raises blood cholesterol and risk of heart disease.
    • Trans fatty acids—unsaturated fatty acids that are structurally different from the unsaturated fatty acids that occur naturally in plant foods. Sources of trans fatty acids include partially hydrogenated vegetable oils used in processed foods such as desserts, microwave popcorn, frozen pizza, some margarines, and coffee creamer. Trans fatty acids also are present naturally in foods that come from ruminant animals (e.G., cattle and sheep), such as dairy products, beef, and lamb.
    • Triglycerides (try-glih-ser-ides) a type of fat in your blood, triglycerides can contribute to the hardening and narrowing of your arteries if levels are too high. This puts you at risk of having a heart attack or stroke. Triglycerides are measured along with cholesterol as part of a blood test. Normal triglyceride levels are below 150 mg/dl. Levels above 200 mg/dl are high.
    • Triticale
    • Triticale is a hybrid of wheat and rye.
    • Two types of lipoproteins carry cholesterol in the blood: low-density lipoproteins (ldl, often called “Bad cholesterol”) and high-density lipoproteins (hdl or “Good cholesterol”). When cholesterol levels are too high, some of the cholesterol may stick to the walls of your arteries. This build-up is called plaque. Over time, plaque may narrow your arteries or even block them. High levels of cholesterol in the blood may increase your risk of heart disease.
    • Type 1 diabetes
    • Type 1 diabetes (dye-ah-beet-eez) type 1 diabetes is thought to be an autoimmune disorder that attacks and destroys the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. (an autoimmune disorder occurs when the body’s immune system, which usually helps the body fight diseases, turns against its own tissue.) type 1 diabetes was known as “Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus”, or “Juvenile diabetes”. Without insulin, the body is not able to use blood sugar (glucose) for energy. To treat the disease, a person must inject insulin, exercise daily, and test blood sugar several times a day.
    • Type 2 diabetes
    • Type 2 diabetes (dye-ah-beet-eez) people with type 2 diabetes produce insulin, but either do not make enough insulin or their bodies do not efficiently use the insulin they make. People with type 2 diabetes may be able to control their condition by losing weight through diet and exercise. They may also need to inject insulin or take medicine along with continuing to follow a healthy eating pattern and being physically active on a regular basis. Type 2 diabetes was known as “Noninsulin-dependent diabetes” or “Adult-onset diabetes” and is the most common form of diabetes. Children and adolescents who are overweight may also be at risk to develop type 2 diabetes.
    • Glossary of diet and nutritional terms U

    • U ulceration. Formation of ulcers on a mucous membrane accompanied by pus and necrosis of surrounding tissue.
    • Ulcerative colitis. Inflammation of the inner lining of the colon, characterized by open sores that appear in its mucous membrane.
    • Undernutrition. Food intake too low to maintain adequate energy expenditure without weight loss.
    • Unsaturated fat. Fat that help to lower blood cholesterol; olive and canola oils are monounsaturated fats; fish, safflower, sunflower, corn, and soybean oils are polyunsaturated fats.
    • Urban legend. A story, anecdote, or piece of advice based on hearsay and circulated by person-toperson transmission.
    • Uric acid. An acid found in urine and blood that is produced by the body’s breakdown of nitrogen wastes.
    • Urologist. A physician that specializes in disorders of the urinary tract and male genitals.
    • Usda food patterns—a set of eating patterns that exemplify healthy eating, which all include recommended intakes for the five food groups (vegetables, fruits, grains, dairy, and protein foods) and for subgroups within the vegetables, grains, and protein foods groups. They also recommend an allowance for intake of oils. Patterns are provided at 12 calorie levels from 1,000 to 3,200 calories to meet varied calorie needs. The healthy u.S.-style pattern is the base usda food pattern.
    • Underconsumed nutrients, or “shortfall nutrients,” are
    • Underwater weighing
    • Underweight less than the 5th percentile less than 18.5 kg/m2
    • Unsaturated fat
    • Unsaturated fatty acids that are structurally different from
    • Unsaturated fat (un-satch-er-ay-ted) unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature. Vegetable oils are a major source of unsaturated fat in the diet. Unsaturated fats include polyunsaturated fats and monounsaturated fats. Other foods, such as avocados, fatty fish like salmon and tuna, most nuts, and olives are good sources of unsaturated fat.
    • Glossary of diet and nutritional terms V

    • V vanillin. A synthetic version of vanilla flavoring.
    • Vasodilator. A substance that causes blood vessels the body to become wider allowing the blood to flow more easily.
    • Vegetarian. A diet containing no meat, but usually containing other animal products such as milk and eggs.
    • Venous return. The blood returning to the heart via the inferior and superior venae cavae.
    • Very low-calorie diet (vlcd). A term used by nutritionists to classify weight-reduction diets that allow around 800 calories or fewer a day.
    • Villi intestinales. Microscopic hair-like structures covered with epithelial cells measuring 1–1.5 mm that line the mucous inner membrane of the small intestine.
    • Villi. The tiny, finger-like projections on the surface of the small intestine that help absorb nutrients.
    • Vitamin b1 (thiamin). A vitamin which plays an important role in carbohydrate metabolism. A deficiency can lead to a disorder called beri beri, which results in a widespread nerve degeneration, which can damage the brain, spinal cord and heart. Good sources of this vitamin for lacto-vegetarians include cereals, beans, potatoes and nuts.
    • Vitamin b2 (riboflavin). A vitamin or co-enzyme, which functions by helping the enzymes in the body function correctly. A good source of this vitamin for lacto-vegetarians is milk.
    • Vitamin. A nutrient that the body needs in small amounts to remain healthy but that the body cannot manufacture for itself and must acquire through diet.
    • Variety
    • Variety—a diverse assortment of foods and beverages across and within all food groups and subgroups selected to fulfill the recommended amounts without exceeding the limits for calories and other dietary components. For example, in the vegetables food group, selecting a variety of foods could be accomplished over the course of a week by choosing from all subgroups, including dark green, red and orange, legumes (beans and peas), starchy, and other vegetables.
    • Vegan
    • Vegan is the word that describes an individual who avoids all animal-derived foods from their diet, including honey and gelatine.
    • Vegetarian
    • Very low-calorie diet (vlcd) a vlcd is a diet supervised by a health care professional that typically uses commercially prepared formulas to promote rapid weight loss in some patients who are considered to be obese. People on a vlcd consume about 800 calories a day or less.
    • Very-low calorie diet (vlcd)
    • Vitamin a
    • Vitamin a is essential for a variety of functions including vision, skin health and new cell growth. Good sources include tomatoes and dark green and orange vegetables and orange fruits, such as broccoli, spinach, carrots, pumpkin and apricots.
    • Vitamin b1 (thiamin)
    • Vitamin b1 is needed for energy metabolism and the proper functioning of the nervous system. Good sources include wholegrains, soybeans, peas, beans, pistachio nuts.
    • Vitamin b12
    • Vitamin b12 is an essential vitamin required by the body to make red blood cells and dna. It is also needed to make a protective layer around nerve cells. This vitamin is found naturally in animal products, such as meat, dairy products and eggs. There are some plant sources of vitamin b12, however the form of the vitamin found in these foods is inactive and not useful to the body. People who only eat plant foods (I.E. Vegans) should include adequate amounts of plant foods that contain added vitamin b12 (e.G. Fortified soy drinks and soy-based meat-alternative products), or take a b12 supplement.
    • Vitamin b2 (riboflavin)
    • Vitamin b2 is needed for energy metabolism, tissue growth, and maintaining good vision. Good sources include dairy products (milk, cheese, yoghurts), broccoli, spinach, mushrooms and eggs.
    • Vitamin b3 (niacin)
    • Vitamin b3 is needed for energy metabolism, proper digestion, and a healthy nervous system. Good sources include kidney beans, peanuts, mushrooms, milk, cheese, chicken and salmon.
    • Vitamin b6 (pyridoxine)
    • Vitamin b6 is needed for amino acid metabolism, cognitive function and immune function. Good sources include wholegrains, spinach, broccoli, carrots banana and yoghurt.
    • Vitamin c
    • Vitamin c is an antioxidant vitamin needed for the formation of collagen to hold the cells together and for healthy teeth, gums and blood vessels. It also improves iron absorption and resistance to infection. Fruit and vegetables are good sources of vitamin c.
    • Vitamin d
    • Vitamin d promotes absorption and use of calcium and phosphate for healthy bones and teeth. The body synthesises vitamin d when our skin is exposed to at least 10-15 minutes sunshine per day. Longer time is required in winter months and in those with darker skin tones. Food sources include fortified milk, cheese, whole eggs, liver, salmon, and fortified margarine.
    • Vitamin e
    • Vitamin e is a strong antioxidant that can help protect the bodys cells against damage. Food sources of vitamin e include wholegrain products, nuts and seeds, wheatgerm and vegetable oils.
    • Vitamin k
    • Vitamin k is necessary for normal blood clotting and synthesis of proteins found in the bone and kidneys. About half of an individuals vitamin k requirements come from bacteria that reside in the gastrointestinal tract. The other half can be obtained from foods such as leafy green vegetables and cruciferous vegetables such as cabbage.
    • Vitamins
    • Vitamins are molecules that are needed in small amounts by the body for health and growth, and they must be obtained by the diet daily. The exceptions to this rule are vitamin d, which is made in the skin when exposed to sunlight and vitamin k, which can be synthesised by gut bacteria in small amounts. Vitamins play an essential role in releasing energy from food and in speeding up many chemical reactions that occur in the body every second. They also play important roles in the formation of body components, such as blood and bone as well as being antioxidants.
    • Vitamins such as vitamin c, vitamin e and beta-carotene (which is converted to vitamin a in the body)
    • Glossary of diet and nutritional terms W

    • W wasting syndrome. A combination of weight loss and change in composition of body tissues that occurs in patients with hiv infection. Typically, the patient’s body loses lean muscle tissue and replaces it with fat as well as losing weight overall.
    • Water intoxication. A potentially fatal condition that occurs when an athlete loses sodium from the body through perspiration and drinks a large quantity of water in a short period of time without replacing the sodium. Long-distance runners are particularly susceptible to water intoxication.
    • Water-soluble vitamin. A vitamin that dissolves in water and can be removed from the body in urine.
    • Webcast. The delivery of live or delayed sound or video broadcasts using web technologies. The sound or video is captured by conventional video or audio systems. It is then digitized and streamed on a web server.
    • Whey. The watery part of milk, separated out during the process of making cheese.
    • Whole-diet approach. The notion that the beneficial effects of any dietary regimen are produced by the diet as a whole rather than by one specific food or other factor.
    • Women’s health initiative (whi).Major 15-year research program sponsored by the national heart, lung, and blood institute (nhlbi) of the national institutes of health (nih) to address the most common causes of death, disability and poor quality of life in postmenopausal women, namely cardiovascular disease, cancer, and osteoporosis. The whi was launched in 1991 and consisted of a set of clinical trials and an observational study, which together involved 161,808 generally healthy postmenopausal women. The study results were published in the february 16, 2007 issue of the new england journal of medicine.
    • Waist circumference
    • Waist circumference is a measurement of the size of an individuals waist.
    • Waist circumference excess fat around the waist and a larger waist size increase the risk of health problems linked to obesity. Women with a waist size of more than 35 inches or men with a waist size of more than 40 inches have a higher risk of developing health problems linked to obesity, such as diabetes, heart disease, and high blood pressure.
    • Waist-to-hip ratio
    • Waist-to-hip ratio is measurement of an individuals waist divided by their hip measurement.
    • Water
    • Water is one of the nutrients that our body requires for health and it makes up 50-70% of our body weight. All cells in the body require it and adequate water intake helps prevent dehydration. 6-8 glasses of water are required each day, more than this may be required during hot weather or for active people. Signs that a person may be dehydrated, even slightly include: inability to concentrate, confusion, tiredness, moody, dark coloured urine or dried cracked lips. People are often already slightly dehydrated before they begin to feel thirsty.
    • We need calcium for strong bones and teeth. Calcium is found in dairy products, fortified soy drinks, green leafy vegetables, nuts and seeds.
    • Weight control
    • Weight control this refers to achieving and maintaining a healthy weight with healthy eating and physical activity
    • Weight-cycling
    • Weight-cycling this refers to losing and gaining weight over and over again.
    • What a person eats and drinks. Any type of eating plan.
    • When consumed, plant sterols reduce the absorption of cholesterol from your intestines into the body. This includes both the cholesterol you eat (called dietary cholesterol) and that made by your liver, which enters the intestines through bile.
    • When referring to a tumor, it generally means noncancerous.
    • Whole fruits—all fresh, frozen, canned, and dried fruit but not fruit juice.
    • Whole grains grains and grain products made from the entire grain seed, usually called the kernel, which consists of the bran, endosperm, and/or germ. If the kernel has been cracked, crushed, or flaked, it must retain nearly the same relative proportions of bran, endosperm, and germ as the original grain in order to be called whole grain. Many, but not all, whole grains are also a source of dietary fiber.
    • Whole grains—grains and grain products made from the entire grain seed, usually called the kernel, which consists of the bran, germ, and endosperm. If the kernel has been cracked, crushed, or flaked, it must retain the same relative proportions of bran, germ, and endosperm as the original grain in order to be called whole grain. Many, but not all, whole grains are also sources of dietary fiber.
    • Whole wheat grains grains and grain products made from the entire wheat kernel [see whole grains.
    • Wholefoods
    • Wholefoods are foods that are unprocessed, or minimally processed and as such contain high levels of nutrients. Good examples of wholefoods include fruit and vegetables, wholegrains, brown rice, nuts and seeds.
    • Wholegrain
    • With some planning, both of these diets can provide sufficient nutrients for good health.
    • Glossary of diet and nutritional terms Y

    • Yolk. The yellow spherical mass in the inner portion of an egg. It contains almost all the fat and cholesterol found in eggs.
    • Glossary of diet and nutritional terms Z

    • Zinc
    • Zinc is an essential mineral for human beings and is part of many reactions in the body. It plays a role in wound healing, our ability to taste and in growth and reproduction. Good plant sources of zinc include rolled oats, unprocessed bran, rice, muesli, wholegrain breads and cereals. Zinc is also found in a range of animal foods including oysters, beef and offal, with smaller amounts present in white meat and fish
    • N-3 pufas—a carboxylic acid with an 18-carbon chain and three cis double bonds, alpha-linolenic acid (ala) is an n-3 fatty acid that is essential in the diet because it cannot be synthesized by humans. Primary sources include soybean oil, canola oil, walnuts, and flaxseed. Eicosapentaenoic acid (epa) and docosahexaenoic acid (dha) are very long chain n-3 fatty acids that are contained in fish and shellfish. Also called omega-3 fatty acids.
    • N-6 pufas—a carboxylic acid with an 18-carbon chain and two cis double bonds, linoleic acid (la), one of the n-6 fatty acids, is essential in the diet because it cannot be synthesized by humans. Primary sources are nuts and liquid vegetable oils, including soybean oil, corn oil, and safflower oil. Also called omega-6 fatty acids.

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New Jersey Weight Loss

Counties Served: Philadelphia Weight Loss, Delaware, Chester, Bucks,Montgomery, Burlington, Kings County Weight Loss, Richmond, QueensManhattanBronx Weight Loss, Nassau County NY, Hudson County, NJ

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