Glossary of diets

ABDOMEN. Part of the body that extends from the chest to the groin.
ABDOMINAL CAVITY. The hollow part of the body that extends from the chest to the groin. It is located between the diaphragm, which is the thin muscle below the lungs and heart, and the pelvis, the basin shaped cavity that contains the reproductive organs,bladder, and rectum. The abdominal cavity contains the abdominal organs.
ABSCESS. A pocket of pus formed by an infection.
ABSORPTION. Uptake by the digestive tract.
ACCEPTABLE DAILY INTAKE (ADI). The level of a substance that a person can consume every day over a lifetime without risk. The ADIs for artificial sweeteners are very conservative measurements.
ACCEPTABLE MACRONUTRIENT DISTRIBUTION RANGE(AMDR). A range of intakes for a particular energy source that is associated with reduced risk of chronic disease while providing adequate intakes of essential nutrients. An AMDR is expressed as a percentage of total energy intake.
ACESULFAME POTASSIUM. A calorie-free artificial sweetener, also known as Acesulfame K or Ace K, and marketed under the trade names Sunett and Sweet One. Ace sulfame potassium is 180-200 times sweeter than sucrose (table sugar), as sweet as aspartame, about half as sweet as saccharin, and one-quarter the sweetness of sucralose. Like saccharin, it has as lightly bitter aftertaste, especially at high concentrations. Kraft Foods has patented the use of sodiumferulate to mask acesulfame’s aftertaste. Alternatively, acesulfame K is often blended with other sweeteners(usually sucralose or aspartame)ACIDOPHILUS.Bacteria found in yogurt that, when ingested, helps restore the normal bacterial populations in the human digestive system.
ACIDOSIS. Excessive acidity of body fluids due to accumulation of acids.
ACNE VULGARIS. An inflammatory disease of the skin characterized by pimples and cysts that may causes carring in severe cases.
ACQUIRED IMMUNE DEFICIENCY SYNDROME (AIDS).
ACRODERMATITIS ENTEROPATHICA. A genetic disorder resulting from the impaired uptake and transport of zinc in the body.
ACUTE RETROVIRAL SYNDROME (ARS). A syndromethat develops in about 30% of HIV patients within afew weeks of infection. ARS is characterized by nausea, vomiting, fever, headache, general tiredness, andmuscle cramps.
ACUTE. Acute means sudden or severe. Acutesymptoms appear, change, or worsen rapidly. It isthe opposite of chronic.
ADHD. The combination of inattentive, hyperactive and impulsive behavior that are severe, developmentally inappropriate and impair function at home and in school. Common features include mood swings,anxiety, impulsivity, hostility, poor concentration andsleep problems as well as physical complaints such as stomach aches, headaches and migraines.
ADIPOSE TISSUE. A type of connective tissue thatcontains stored cellular fat.
ADRENALINE. Hormone produced by the adrenalglands that increases heart and respiration rates.
AEROBIC EXERCISE. Moderate intensity exercise,done over a long duration, that uses oxygen. Aerobic exercise strengthens the cardiovascular system andlungs.
AETIOLOGY. This refers to the cause of a disease.
AFTER-BURN. The increased rate of body metabolism that lasts for several hours after a session ofvigorous exercise.
AGGLUTINATION. The clumping or clotting ofcells.
AHIMSA. A Sanskrit word for non-killing and nonharming, adopted by the American Vegan Society asits official watchword. The AVS notes that the sixletters in ahimsa st and for the basic principles ofveganism: Abstinence from animal products; Harmlessness with reverence for life; Integrity of thought,word, and deed; Mastery over oneself; Service tohumanity, nature, and creation; and Advancement of understanding and truth.
AIDS is caused by a retrovirus.
ALBUMEN. The white of the egg. It can be separated from the yolk for cooking or to avoid the high fat and high cholesterol content of the yolk.
ALBUMIN. Water-soluble proteins that can be coagulated by heat and are found in egg white, bloodserum, milk.
ALGAE (SING., ALGA). Any of numerous groups ofone-celled organisms containing chlorophyll. Spirulina is a blue-green alga.
ALKALOID. An organic, compound found inplants; chemically it is a base and usually contains atleast one nitrogen atom.
ALLERGEN. Any substance that produces an allergic reaction.
ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID (ALA). A polyunsaturatedomega-3 fatty acid found primarily in seed oils (canolaoil, flaxseed oil, and walnut oil), purslane and otherbroad-leaved plants, and soybeans. ALA is thought tolower the risk of cardiovascular disease.
ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE. A system of healing thatrejects conventional, pharmaceutical-based medicine and replaces it with the use of dietary supplements and therapies such as herbs, vitamins, minerals, massage, and cleansing diets. Alternative medicine includeswell-established treatment systems such as homeopathy, Traditional Chinese Medicine, and Ayurvedicmedicine, as well as more-recent, fad-driven treatments.
ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE. A progressive, incurablecondition that destroys brain cells, gradually causingloss of intellectual abilities, such as memory, andextreme changes in personality and behavior.
AMARANTH. An herb cultivated as a food crop inMexico and South America. Its grains can be toasted and mixed with honey or molasses as a vegetariantreat.
AMENORRHEA. Absence or suppression of normalmenstrual periods in women of childbearing age,usually defined as three to six missed periods.
AMINO ACID. These compounds are the buildingblocks of protein. Some amino acids can be synthesised by the body but some cannot. The latter arereferred to as essential amino acids and thereforemust be obtained from protein in the diet.
AMOEBA. A single-celled organism, many speciesof which live in free in water.
AMOEBIC DYSENTERY. Disease characterized bysevere diarrhea, caused by infection of the gut byEntamoeba histolytica.
AMPHETAMINES. Stimulant drugs whose effects arevery similar to cocaine.
AMYLOIDOSIS. Condition characterized by accumulation in body tissues of deposits of abnormal proteins (amyloids) produced by cells. Amyloidosis canlead to kidney disease.
ANABOLIC STEROID. A group of synthetic hormones that promote the storage of protein and thegrowth of tissue, sometimes used by athletes toincrease muscle size and strength.
ANABOLIC. Pertaining to the putting together ofcomplex substances from simples ones, especially tothe building of muscle protein from amino acids.
ANAEMIA. Anaemia refers to a reduction in the quantity of the oxygen-carrying pigment haemoglobinin the blood. The main symptoms of anaemia areexcessive tiredness and fatigability, breathlessness onexertion, pallor and poor resistance to infection.
ANAEROBIC EXERCISE. Brief, strength-based activity, such as sprinting or weight training, in whichanaerobic (without oxygen) metabolism occurs in the muscles.
ANAEROBIC. Without air, or oxygen.
ANAL FISSURE. A crack or slit that develops in the mucous membrane of the anus, often as a result of aconstipated person pushing to expel hardened stool.
ANALGESIC. A substance capable of producinganalgesia, meaning one that relieves pain.
ANAPHYLAXIS (ANAPHYLACTIC SHOCK). A severe and potentially fatal systemic allergic reaction characterized by itching, hives, fainting, and respiratorysymptoms. Sulfites may trigger anaphylaxis in as mall number of people who are unusually sensitiveto them.
ANECDOTAL EVIDENCE. A category of medical ordietary evidence based on or consisting of individualreports, usually written by observers who are not doctors or scientists.
ANEMIA. Low level of red blood cells in the blood.
ANGINA PECTORIS. Chest pain or discomfort.
ANORECTIC. A drug which suppresses the appetite.
ANOREXIA NERVOSA. A psychiatric disorder signified by obsession with weight loss and voluntary selfstarvation accompanied by serious, potentially fatalhealth problems.
ANOREXIANT. A drug that causes loss of appetite.
ANTHROPOLOGICAL. Pertaining to anthropologyor the study or the natural and cultural history ofhumans.
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY. Medication such as aspirinor Ibuprophen that reduces swelling.
ANTIANEMIC. Preventing or curing anemia, a condition characterized by a lower than normal count ofred blood cells.
ANTIBIOTIC. A drug that kills bacteria and othergerms.
ANTIBODY. A protein produced by the body’simmune system that recognizes and helps fight infections and other foreign substances in the body.
ANTICOAGULANTS. Blood thinners.
ANTIDEPRESSANTS. Drugs used primarily to treatdepression.
ANTIEMETIC. Agents that prevent nausea andvomiting.
ANTIFUNGAL. Substance that prevents the growthof fungi.
ANTIGEN. A substance that is foreign to the body and invokes an immune response.
ANTIHISTAMINE. Medication that stops the actionof histamines.
ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC. Substance used in the treatment of very high serum triglyceride levels.
ANTIMICROBIAL. Substance that prevents thegrowth of microorganisms including bacteria, viruses and fungi.
ANTIMUTAGENIC. Substance that protects againstgenetic mutation.
ANTINOCICEPTIVE. Substance that reduces sensitivity to painful stimuli.
ANTIOXIDANT. A molecule that prevents oxidation. in the body antioxidants attach to other molecules called free radicals and prevent the free radicalsfrom causing damage to cell walls, DNA, and otherparts of the cell.
ANTIOXIDATIVE. A substance that inhibits oxidation.
ANTIPYRETIC. An agent that reduces or preventsfever.
ANTISEPTIC. Medicine used to control infection.
ANTITUSSIVE. Preventing or relieving cough.
ANUS. The opening from the rectum to the outsideof the body through which stools pass. The opening and closing of the anus is controlled by a strong ring ofmuscles under somewhat voluntary control.
APPETITE SUPPRESSANT. Drug that decreases feelings of hunger. Most work by increasing levels of serotonin or catecholamine, chemicals in the brain that control appetite.
ARTERY. A blood vessel that carries blood from theheart to the body.
ARTHRITIS (PLURAL, ARTHRITIDES). A general termfor the inflammation of a joint or a condition characterized by joint inflammation.
ASCITES. Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity.
ASD. Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) refers tothe features of individuals who have a degree of the condition known as autism. Autism is a serious developmental disorder characterised by profound deficits in language, communication, socialization and resistance to learning.
ASSOCIATION.In psychology, a connection betweentwo ideas, actions, or psychological phenomena through learning or experience. The Shangri-la diet is based in part on the notion that humans eat more than they 1031 need to in the modern world because of a strong association between food flavors and calories.
ASTHMA.A respiratory disorder marked by wheezing, shortness of breath, and mucus production.
ASTRINGENT. A substance that reduces secretions,dries and shrinks tissue, and helps control bleeding.
ATHEROSCLEROSIS. Clogging, narrowing, andhardening of the large arteries and medium-sizedblood vessels. Atherosclerosis can lead to stroke,heart attack, eye problems and kidney problems.
ATP. Adenosine triphosphate, a high-energy phosphate molecule required to provide energy for cellularfunction. The energy source of muscles for shortbursts of power.
AUTISM. A brain disorder that begins in early childhood and persists throughout adulthood. Itaffects three important areas of development: communication, social interaction, and creative or imaginative play.
AUTO-IMMUNITY. A response, involving the immune system, that results in a person’s own tissuesbeing attacked.
AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE. An illness that occurs when the body tissues are attacked by its own immunesystem.
AUTOINTOXICATION. A belief, now discredited,that the contents of the intestine are toxic and producepoisons that can damage other body organs.
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. The part of thenervous system that innervates the smooth muscle ofthe viscera, the heart, and glandular tissue, and governs the body’s involuntary functions and responses.
AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE. A term used to describe apattern of genetic inheritance in which a child receivestwo copies of a defective gene, one from each parent,on an autosome (a nonsex chromosome). MSUD is anautosomal recessive disorder.
AVOCADO SOYBEAN UNSAPONIFIABLES (ASU). Acompound of the fractions of avocado oil and soybeanoil that cannot be used in the production of soap. ASUshows promise in the treatment of OA. It is availableonly by prescription in France, where it was first studied, but can be purchased over the counter in the United States.
AYURVEDA.The traditional system of natural medicine that originated in India around 3500 BC. Itsname is Sanskrit for ‘‘science of long life.’’ Somepeople have tried Ayurvedic medicines and dietaryrecommendations in the treatment of arthritis.
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR)—Range of intake for a particular energy source (i.e., carbohydrate, fat, and protein) that is associated with reduced risk of chronic disease while providing intakes of essential nutrients. If an individual’s intake is outside of the AMDR, there is a potential of increasing the risk of chronic diseases and/or insufficient intakes of essential nutrients.
Acculturation—The process by which individuals who immigrate into a new country adopt the attitudes, values, customs, beliefs, and behaviors of the new culture. Acculturation is the gradual exchange between the original attitudes and behaviors associated with the originating country and those of the host culture.
Added refined starch—The starch constituent (see Carbohydrates) of a grain, such as corn, or of a vegetable, such as potato, used as an ingredient in another food. Starches have been refined to remove other components of the food, such as fiber, protein, and minerals. Refined starches can be added to foods as a thickener, a stabilizer, a bulking agent, or an anti-caking agent. While refined starches are made from grains or vegetables, they contain little or none of the many other components of these foods that together create a nutrient-dense food. They are a source of calories but few or no other nutrients.
Added sugars—Syrups and other caloric sweeteners used as a sweetener in other food products. Naturally occurring sugars such as those in fruit or milk are not added sugars. Specific examples of added sugars that can be listed as an ingredient include brown sugar, corn sweetener, corn syrup, dextrose, fructose, glucose, high-fructose corn syrup, honey, invert sugar, lactose, malt syrup, maltose, molasses, raw sugar, sucrose, trehalose, and turbinado sugar. (See Carbohydrates, Sugars.)
Adequate Intakes (AI)—A recommended average daily nutrient intake level based on observed or experimentally determined approximations or estimates of mean nutrient intake by a group (or groups) of apparently healthy people. An AI is used when the Recommended Dietary Allowance cannot be determined.
An antihistamine that relieves allergy symptoms.
Anal fissures are quite painful and difficult to heal.
Angina pectoris is the more common and stable formof angina. Stable angina has a pattern and is morepredictable in nature, usually occurring when theheart is working harder than normal.
Any substance that is a food or a part of a food andprovides medical or health benefits, including the prevention and treatment of disease. Nutriceuticalsinclude dietary supplements and meal substitutes likethose recommended by the Warrior diet a well asfortified foods and functional foods.
B-COMPLEX VITAMINS. A group of water-solublevitamins that often work together in the body. Theseinclude thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), pantothenic acid (B5), pyridoxine (B6), biotin (B7 or vitamin H), niacin/folic acid (B9), and cobalamin (B12).
B-GROUP VITAMINS. Group of eight water-solublevitamins that are often present as a single, vitamincomplex in many natural sources, such as rice, liver and yeast.
BACTERIA. Microscopic, single-celled organismsfound in air, water, soil, and food. Only a few actuallycause disease in humans.
BACTERICIDAL. A state that prevents growth ofbacteria.
BARBERRY. A shrub native to southern Europe andwestern Asia that produces oblong red berries thathave a sour taste. Barberry has been used as a naturaltreatment for giardiasis.
BARIATRICS. A medical specialty that deals withweight management and the treatment of obesity.
BARRETT’S SYNDROME. Also called Barrett’s esophagus or Barrett’s epithelia, this is a conditionwhere the squamous epithelial cells that normallyline the esophagus are replaced by thicker columnarepithelial cells.
BASAL METABOLIC RATE. The number of caloriesthe body burns at rest to maintain normal bodyfunctions.
BATERIOSTATIC. A substance that kills bacteria.
BEAVER FEVER. An informal name for giardiasis, socalled because beavers are a common animal reservoirof the parasite that causes giardiasis.
BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION. Changing an individual’s behavior through positive and negativeresponses to achieve a desired result.
BEHAVIOR THERAPY. A non-biological form oftherapy that developed largely out of learning theoryresearch and is normally applied to the treatment ofspecific maladaptive behavior patterns.
BENIGN. Mild, does not threaten health or life.
BENZOIC ACID. A type of preservative used in processed foods known to cause food sensitivity in someindividuals when consumed in the diet.
BILE ACIDS. Produced by the liver, from cholesterol, for the digestion and absorption of fat.
BILE DUCTS. Tubes that carry bile from the liver tothe gallbladder for storage and to the small intestinefor use in digestion.
BILE. Fluid made by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. Bile helps break down fats and gets ridof wastes in the body.
BINGE DRINKING. Usually used to refer to heavydrinking over an evening or similar time span. Sometimes also referred to as heavy episodic drinking.
BINGE EATING DISORDER. A mental eating disorderthat features the consumption of large amounts offood in short periods of time.
BIOAVAILABILITY. Availability to living organisms,based on chemical form.
BIODIVERSITY. The presence of many differentspecies of plants and animals within a limited geographical region.
BIOELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE ANALYSIS (BIA). A technique for evaluating body composition by passing asmall amount of electrical current through the body and measuring the resistance of different types oftissue.
BIOFEEDBACK. A technique for improving awareness of internal bodily sensations in order to gainconscious control over digestion and other processes generally considered to be automatic.
BIOMOLECULE. Any organic molecule that is anessential part of a living organism.
BIPOLAR DISORDER.A psychiatric disorder markedby alternating episodes of mania and depression.
BL and DIET. A diet that is free of irritating or stimulating foods.
BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER. A physiological mechanism that alters the permeability of brain capillaries, sothat some substances, such as certain drugs, are prevented from entering brain tissue, while other substances are allowed to enter freely.
BLOOD CHOLESTEROL. Cholesterol is a moleculefrom which hormones, steroids and nerve cells aremade. It is an essential molecule for the human body and circulates in the blood stream. Between 75 and80% of the cholesterol that circulates in a person’sbloodstream is made in that person’s liver. the remainder is acquired from animal dietary sources. Itis not found in plants. Normal blood cholesterol levelis a number obtained from blood tests. A normalcholesterol level is defined as less than 200 mg ofcholesterol per deciliter of blood.
BLOOD DOPING. Practice of illicitly boosting thenumber of red blood cells in the circulation in order toenhance athletic performance.
BLOOD PLASMA. The pale yellowish, protein-containing fluid portion of the blood in which cells aresuspended. 92% water, 7% protein and 1% minerals.
BODY DYSMORPHIC DISORDER. A mental disorderinvolving extreme preoccupation with some feature ofone’s appearance. Excessive time spent in physicalexercise, often involving bodybuilding or weight-lifting practices, is a common symptom of the disorder inadolescents.
BODY MASS INDEX. Also known as BMI, the indexdetermines whether a person is at a healthy weight,underweight, overweight, or obese. The BMI can becalculated by converting the person’s height intoinches. That amount is multiplied by itself and thendivided by the person’s weight. That number is thenmultiplied by 703. The metric formula for the BMI isthe weight in kilograms divided by the square of heightin meters.
BODYBUILDING. Developing muscle size and tone,usually for competitive exhibition.
BONE MINERAL DENSITY (BMD). Test used to measure bone density and usually expressed as the amount of mineralized tissue in the area scanned (g/cm2). It isused for the diagnosis of osteoporosis.
BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER. A seriousmental illness characterized by ongoing instability inmoods, interpersonal relationships, self-image, andbehavior.
BOTANICAL. An herb; a dietary supplement derivedfrom a plant.
BOTULISM. A potentially deadly disease characterized by respiratory and musculoskeletal paralysis caused by a bacterium called Clostridium botulinum.
BRAN. The outer layer of cereal kernel that contains fiber and nutrients. It is removed during the refining process.
BRANCHED-CHAIN ALPHA-KETO ACID DEHYDROGENASE (BCKD). The chemical name of the enzymethat is missing or partially inactivated in patients with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD).
BROWN ADIPOSE TISSUE. BAT; brown fat; a heatproducing tissue found primarily in human fetuses andinfants and hibernating animals.
BULIMIA. Also called bulimia nervosa, an eatingdisorder characterized by binges, or eating much foodin little time, followed by purging behaviors, such as throwing up or taking laxatives.
Based in Switzerl and it functions as a global alliance of patient, medical and research societies, scientists,health care professionals, and international companies concerned about bone health. Its aim is to developa world wide strategy for the management and prevention of osteoporosis.
Blood cholesterol—Cholesterol that travels in the serum of the blood as distinct particles containing both lipids and proteins (lipoproteins). Also referred to as serum cholesterol. Two kinds of lipoproteins are:
Body Mass Index (BMI) and Corresponding Body Weight Categories for Children and Adults
Body Weight Category Children and Adolescents (ages 2 to 19 years)
Body mass index (BMI)—A measure of weight in kilograms (kg) relative to height in meters squared (m2). BMI is considered a reasonably reliable indicator of total body fat, which is related to the risk of disease and death. BMI status categories include underweight, healthy weight, overweight, and obese (Table A6-1 ). Overweight and obese describe ranges of weight that are greater than what is considered healthy for a given height, while underweight describes a weight that is lower than what is considered healthy. Because children and adolescents are growing, their BMI is plotted on growth charts for sex and age. The percentile indicates the relative position of the child’s BMI among children of the same sex and age.
Botulism is a medical emergency. Nitrites are sometimes used to prevent the growth of C. botulinumspores in meat and smoked fish.
C-REACTIVE PROTEIN (CRP). a marker of inflammation circulating in the blood has been proposed as amethod to identify persons at risk of these diseases.
CAFFEINE. A plant alkaloid found in coffee, tea,hot chocolate, and some soft drinks that functions as adiuretic as well as a central nervous system stimulant.
CALCIUM CARBONATE. A salt that is used in manyantacids.
CALCIUM. Calcium is a mineral present in largequantities in the body, mainly in the bones and teeth.
CALORIC. Relating to heat or calories, also, full ofcalories, and so likely to be fattening.
CALORIE REDUCTION. A decrease in the number ofcalories that a person consumes.
CALORIE.A unit of food energy. In nutrition terms,the word calorie is used instead of the scientific termkilocalorie which represents the amount of energyrequired to raise the temperature of one liter of waterby one degree centigrade at sea level. In nutrition, acalorie of food energy refers to a kilocalorie and istherefore equal to 1000 true calories of energy.
CARBOHYDRATE ADDICTION. A compelling hunger, craving, or desire for foods high in carbohydrates,or an escalating and recurring need for starchy foods,snack foods, junk foods, and sweets.
CARBOHYDRATE. A nutrient that the body uses asan energy source. A carbohydrate provide 4 calories ofenergy per gram.
CARBOXYL GROUP. The carbon atom at the end ofa fatty acid hydrocarbon chain is attached by a doublebond to oxygen and by a single bond to hydrogenforming the chemical structure carboxyl.
CARCINOGEN. A cancer-causing substance.
CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIA. A group of conditions inwhich the muscle contraction of the heart is irregularor is faster or slower than normal.
CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE. This describes medicalconditions that relate to disease of the heart and circulatory system ( blood vessels) such as angina, heartattacks and strokes.
CARDIOVASCULAR. Pertaining to the heart andblood vessels.
CARIES. Cavities in the teeth.
CARMINATIVE. A substance that stops the formation of intestinal gas and helps expel gas that hasalready formed.
CARNITINE. This is a naturally occurring substance, needed for the oxidation of fatty acids, a deficiency of which is known to have major adverse effectson the CNS.
CARNIVORE. An animal whose diet consists mostlyor entirely of meat. Cats, wolves, snakes, birds of prey,frogs, sharks, spiders, seals, and penguins are allcarnivores.
CAROTENOID.Fat-soluble plant pigments, some ofwhich are important to human health.
CARRIER. A person who harbors an infectiousagent or a defective gene without showing clinicalsigns of disease themselves and who can transmit theinfection to others or the defective gene to theirchildren.
CATABOLISM. The breakdown of complexmolecules.
CATARACT. A condition where the lens of the eyebecomes cloudy.
CECUM. The pouch-like start of the large intestinethat links it to the small intestine.
CELIAC DISEASE. A digestive disease that causesdamage to the small intestine. It results from the ability to digest gluten found in wheat, rye, and barley.
CELL DIFFERENTIATION. The process by which stemcells develop into different types of specialized cells such as skin, heart, muscle, and blood cells.
CELLULITE. Fat deposited in pockets just below thesurface of the skin around the hips, thighs, andbuttocks.
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS). The central nervous system (CNS) is composed of the brain andspinal cord. The brain receives sensory information from the nerves that pass through the spinal cord, aswell as other nerves such as those from sensory organsinvolved in sight and smell. Once received, the brainprocesses the sensory signals and initiates responses.
CERULOPLASMIN. A blue copper containing dehydrogenase protein found in serum that is apparentlyinvolved in copper detoxification and storage.
CERUMEN. The waxy substance secreted by glandsin the external ear canal.
CHELATING AGENT. An organic compound inwhich atoms form more than one bond with metalsin solution.
CHEMOTHERAPY. Treatment of cancer with drugs.
CHOLELITHIASIS. The medical term for gallstones.
CHOLESTEROL.A waxy substance made by the liver and also acquired through diet. High levels in the blood may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.
CHOLINE. A compound found in egg yolks andlegumes that is essential to liver function.
CHONDROITIN SULFATE. A compound found naturally in the body that is part of a large protein molecule(proteoglycan) helping cartilage to retain its elasticity.
CHROMIUM. An essential mineral that must beobtained from the diet and is important for the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates and for insulin metabolism, as well as for many enzymatic reactions in the body.
CHRONIC DISEASE. An illness or medical conditionthat lasts over a long period of time and sometimescauses a long-term change in the body.
CHRONIC RENAL DISEASE. The permanent loss ofkidney function.
CHRONIC. Chronic refers to a symptom or diseasethat continues or persists over an extended period oftime.
CHYLOMICRONEMIA. An excess of chylomicrons inthe blood.
CHYLOMICRONS. Intestinal triglycerides.
CIRRHOSIS. A life-threatening disease that scarsliver tissue and damages its cells. It severely affectsliver function, preventing it from removing toxinslike alcohol and drugs from the blood.
CIS FORMATION. The arrangement of atoms wherehydrogen atoms sit on the same side of the carbon tocarbon double bond.
CLAUDICATION.Tiredness and pain in the leg muscles that occur when walking and disappear with rest.
CLOZE TESTS. Tests of language proficiency andwhat they measure.
COCHRANE REVIEWS. Evaluations based on thebest available information about healthcare interventions. They explore the evidence for and against theeffectiveness and appropriateness of treatments in specific circumstances.
COENZYME. Also called a cofactor, a small nonprotein molecule that binds to an enzyme and catalyzes (stimulates) enzyme-mediated reactions.
COFACTOR. A compound that is essential for theactivity of an enzyme.
COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPY (CBT).An approachto psychotherapy based on modifying the patient’s dayto-day thoughts and behaviors, with the aim of changinglong-standing emotional patterns. Some people considerCBT a useful or even necessary tool in maintaining longterm weight reduction.
COLLAGEN. A long fiber-like protein found in skin,bones, blood vessels, and connective tissue such as tendons and ligaments.
COLON POLYPS. Extra tissue that grows in the colon.
COLON. Part of the large intestine, located in the abdominal cavity. It consists of the ascending colon,the transverse colon, the descending colon, and thesigmoid colon.
COLONIC. Sometimes called colonic hydrotherapy, a colonic is a procedure similar to an enema inwhich the patient’s colon is irrigated (washed out) withlarge amounts of water. Some people undergoing adetoxification diet have one or more colonics toremove fecal matter remaining in the intestines duringthe diet; however, this procedure is discouraged bymainstream physicians because of its potential risksto health.
COMPLEMENTARY MEDICINE. Includes many of thesame treatments used in alternative medicine, but usesthem to supplement conventional drug and therapytreatments, rather than to replace conventional medicine.
COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES. Starches; polysaccharides that are made up of hundreds or thousands ofmonosaccharides or single sugar units; found in foods such as rice and pasta.
CONDITIONING. In psychology, the process ofacquiring, developing, or establishing new associations and responses in a person or animal. The authorof the Shangri-la diet believes that modern food products condition people to make an associationbetween the flavors in the foods and calorie intake.
CONJUGATED LINOLENIC ACID. A fatty acid suggested to have health benefits.
CONSTIPATION.Abnormally delayed or infrequentpassage of feces. It may be either functional (related tofailure to move the bowels) or organic (caused byanother disease or disorder).
CONTAMINATION. The undesired occurrence ofharmful microorganisms or substances in food.
CONTROLLED FATIGUE TRAINING (CFT). The Warrior diet’s term for a structured exercise program thattrains the body to resist fatigue as well as improvestrength, speed, and other performance capabilities.
CONVENTIONAL MEDICINE. Mainstream or Western pharmaceutical-based medicine practiced bymedical doctors, doctors of osteopathy, and otherlicensed health care professionals.
CORONARY ARTERY.The arteries that supply bloodto the tissues of the heart from the aorta.
CORONARY HEART DISEASE. A progressive reduction of blood supply to the heart muscle due to narrowing or blocking of a coronary artery.
CORTISOL. Hydrocortisone; a glucocorticoid thatis produced by the adrenal cortex and regulates various metabolic processes and has anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties. Blood levels maybecome elevated in response to stress.
COUSCOUS. A North African food consisting ofsteamed semolina—milled durum wheat—that is alsoused to make pasta.
CRAN-WATER. A diuretic drink consisting of onepart unsweetened cranberry juice in four parts filteredwater.
CREATINE. An organic acid formed and stored inthe body that supplies energy to muscle cells. Meat and fish are good dietary sources of creatine.
CRETINISM. Arrested mental and physicaldevelopment.
CROHN’S DISEASE. Inflammatory disease thatusually occurs in the last section of the small intestine(ileum), causing swelling in the intestines. It can alsooccur in the large intestine.
CROSS-CONTAMINATION. The transfer of harmfulbacteria from one food to another, or also from handsto food.
CYTOCHROMES. Complex proteins within cellmembranes that carry out electron transport. Grapefruit juice interferes with the functioning of an enzymebelonging to the cytochrome P-450 group.
Calorie balance—The balance between calories consumed through eating and drinking and calories expended through physical activity and metabolic processes.
Calorie—A unit commonly used to measure energy content of foods and beverages as well as energy use (expenditure) by the body. A kilocalorie is equal to the amount of energy (heat) required to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram of water 1 degree centigrade. Energy is required to sustain the body’s various functions, including metabolic processes and physical activity. Carbohydrate, fat, protein, and alcohol provide all of the energy supplied by foods and beverages. If not specified explicitly, references to “calories” refer to “kilocalories.”
Carbohydrates—One of the macronutrients and a source of energy. They include sugars, starches, and fiber:
Cardiovascular disease (CVD)—Heart disease as well as diseases of the blood vessel system (arteries, capillaries, veins) that can lead to heart attack, chest pain (angina), or stroke.
Cholesterol—A natural sterol present in all animal tissues. Free cholesterol is a component of cell membranes and serves as a precursor for steroid hormones (estrogen, testosterone, aldosterone), and for bile acids. Humans are able to synthesize sufficient cholesterol to meet biologic requirements, and there is no evidence for a dietary requirement for cholesterol.
Chondroitin sulfate derived from animal or shark cartilage can be taken as a dietary supplement by peoplewith OA.
Cup-equivalent (cup-eq or c-eq)—The amount of a food or beverage product that is considered equal to 1 cup from the vegetables, fruits, or dairy food groups. A cup-eq for some foods or beverages may differ from a measured cup in volume because the foods have been concentrated ( such as raisins or tomato paste), the foods are airy in the ir raw form and do not compress well into a cup ( such as salad greens), or the foods are measured in a different form ( such as cheese).
DASH Eating Plan—The DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) Eating Plan exemplifies healthy eating. It was designed to increase intake of foods expected to lower blood pressure while being heart healthy and meeting Institute of Medicine (IOM) nutrient recommendations. It is available at specific calorie levels. It was adapted from the dietary pattern developed for the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) research trials. in the trials, the DASH dietary pattern lowered blood pressure and LDL-cholesterol levels, resulting in reduced cardiovascular disease risk. The DASH Eating Plan is low in saturated fats and rich in potassium, calcium, and magnesium, as well as fiber and protein. It also is lower in sodium than the typical American diet, and includes menus with two levels of sodium, 2,300 and 1,500 mg per day. It meets the Dietary Reference Intakes for all essential nutrients and stays within limits for overconsumed nutrients, while allowing adaptable food choices based on food preferences, cost, and availability.
DEAMINATION. removal of an NH2 group from amoleculeDEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS (DVT). Blockage of thedeep veins; particularly common in the leg.
DEGENERATIVE DISORDERS. A condition leading toprogressive loss of function.
DEHYDRATION. A condition of water loss causedby either inadequate intake of water or excessive lossof water as through vomiting or diarrhea.
DEMULCENT. A substance that soothes irritatedtissue, especially mucous membranes.
DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID (DNA). A nucleic acidmolecule in a twisted double strand, called a doublehelix, that is the major component of chromosomes.
DERMATOLOGIST. A physician that specializes inconditions of the skin.
DESICCATION. Drying or dehydrating food as amethod of preservation.
DETOXIFICATION DIETS. A group of diets that arefollowed in order to purify the body of heavy metals,toxic chemicals, harmful microbes, the waste productsof digestion, and other substances held to be harmful.
DETOXIFICATION. Detox; cleansing; to remove toxins or poisons from the body.
DEXFENFLURAMINE. An anorectic drug formerlymarketed under the br and name Redux.
DHA. A long-chain omega-3 fatty acid found primarily in oily fish. It is important for the developmentof the brain and the retina of the eye.
DIABETES MELLITUS. A condition in which the bodyeither does not make or cannot respond to the hormone insulin. As a result, the body cannot use glucose(sugar). There are two types, type 1 or juvenile onset and type 2 or adult onset.
DIABETIC PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHY. A conditionwhere the sensitivity of nerves to pain, temperature, and pressure is dulled, particularly in the legs and feet.
DIABETIC RETINOPATHY. A condition where thetiny blood vessels to the retina, the tissues that senselight at the back of the eye, are damaged, leading toblurred vision, sudden blindness, or black spots, lines,or flashing lights in the field of vision.
DIALYSIS. A method of artificial kidney functionused to remove waste products or other substancesfrom the patient’s body fluids. in the case of patients with MSUD, dialysis may be used to remove BCAAsfrom the patient’s body during an acute episoderequiring hospitalization.
DIAPHORETIC. An agent that promotes sweating.
DIETARY APPROACHES TO STOP HYPERTENSION(DASH). Study in 1997 that showed a diet rich in fruits,vegetables and low fat dairy foods, with reduced saturated and total fat can substantially lower bloodpressure.
DIETARY DEFICIENCY. Lack or shortage of certainvitamins or minerals within the diet that can result inillnesses.
DIETARY FIBER. Also known as roughage or bulk.
DIETARY GUIDELINES FOR AMERICANS. Dietaryguidelines published every five years since 1980 bythe Department of Health and Human Services(HHS) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture(USDA). They provide authoritative advice for peopletwo years and older about how good dietary habitscan promote health and reduce risk for major chronicdiseases. They serve as the basis for federal food andnutrition education programs.
DIETARY SUPPLEMENT. A product, such as a vitamin, mineral, herb, amino acid, or enzyme, that isintended to be consumed in addition to an individual’sdiet with the expectation that it will improve health.
DIETITIAN. A health care professional who specializes in individual or group nutritional planning, public education in nutrition, or research in food science.
DIGESTION. The process by which food is chemically converted into nutrients that can be absorbed and used by the body.
DIGESTIVE ENZYMES. Molecules that catalyze thebreakdown of large molecules (usually food) intosmaller molecules.
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM. Organs and paths responsiblefor processing food in the body. These are the mouth,the esophagus, the stomach, the liver, the gallbladder,the pancreas, the small intestine, the large intestine, and the rectum.
DIGESTIVE TRACT. The tube connecting and including the organs and paths responsible for processingfood in the body. These are the mouth, the esophagus,the stomach, the liver, the gallbladder, the pancreas,the small intestine, the large intestine, and the rectum.
DIPHENHYDRAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE (BENADRYL).
DISACCHARIDE. Any of a class of sugars, includinglactose and sucrose, that are composed of twomonosaccharides.
DISEASE-MODIFYING ANTIRHEUMATIC DRUGS(DMARDS). A class of prescription medications givento patients with rheumatoid arthritis that suppress theimmune system and slow the progression of RA.
DISTRACTIBILITY. Inability to concentrate or attendto the task on hand; inattentiveness.
DIURETIC. A substance that removes water fromthe body by increasing urine production.
DIVERTICULA. Small pouches in the muscular wallof the large intestine.
DIVERTICULAR DISORDERS. Disorders that involvethe development of diverticula.
DIVERTICULITIS.Inflammation of the small pouches(diverticula) that can form in the weakened muscularwall of the large intestine.
DIVERTICULOSIS. A condition in which pouch-likebulges or pockets (diverticula) develop along thedigestive tract. Normally, these pouches don’t causeany problems but may become inflamed or infected(diverticulitis).
DNA carries genetic information and is the basis oflife.
DOPAMINE. A neurotransmitter and precursor ofnorepinephrine; found in high concentrations in the brain.
DOPING.The use of performance-enhancing drugsin sports competition, including anabolic steroids andother substances banned by most international sportsorganizations. The English word is thought to comefrom the Dutch dop, which was the name of an alcoholic beverage drunk by Zulu warriors before a battle.
DUODENUM. The first section of the small intestine, extending from the stomach to the jejunum, thenext section of the small intestine.
DYSBIOSIS. The general term to describe the overgrowth of undesirable microflora in the intestines.
DYSLEXIA. An inherent dysfunction affecting thelanguage centers of the brain that results in difficultieswith reading and writing.
DYSLIPIDEMIA. A disorder of lipoprotein metabolism, including lipoprotein overproduction or deficiency. Dyslipidemias may be manifested byelevation of the total cholesterol, the ‘‘bad’’ low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and the triglycerideconcentrations, and a decrease in the ‘‘good’’ highdensity lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrationin the blood.
DYSPRAXIA. A developmental disorder that affectscoordination and movement.
Diabetes—A disorder of metabolism—the way the body uses digested food (specifically carbohydrate) for growth and energy. In diabetes, the pancreas either produces little or no insulin (a hormone that helps glucose, the body’s main source of fuel, get into cells), or the cells do not respond appropriately to the insulin that is produced, which causes too much glucose to be released in the blood. The three main types of diabetes are type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. If not controlled, diabetes can lead to serious complications.
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)—A set of nutrient-based reference values that are quantitative estimates of nutrient intakes to be used for planning and assessing diets for healthy people. DRIs exp and on the periodic reports called Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs), which were first published by the Institute of Medicine in 1941.
Dietary cholesterol—Cholesterol found in foods of animal origin, including meat, seafood, poultry, eggs, and dairy products. Plant foods, such as grains, vegetables, fruits, and oils do not contain dietary cholesterol.
EDEMA. Abnormal and excessive accumulation offluid in body tissues or certain cavities of the body.
EICOSANOIDS. Hormone-like compounds madefrom fatty acids. Eicosanoids are thought to affectblood pressure, blood clotting, and inflammation.
ELECTROLYTE. Any of several chemicals dissolvedin blood and other body fluids that are capable ofconducting an electric current. The most importantelectrolytes in humans and other animals are sodium,potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, phosphate, and hydrogen carbonate.
ELECTRON. A component of an atom or molecule.
ELIMINATION DIET. A diet in which the patientexcludes a specific food (or group of foods) for aperiod of time in order to determine whether thefood is responsible for symptoms of an allergy orother disorder. Elimination diets are also known asfood challenge diets.
EMETIC. A medicine that induces nausea andvomiting.
EMOLLIENT. An agent that softens and soothes theskin when applied locally.
EMOTIONAL EATING. Term for eating to altermood or relieve stress, boredom, or loneliness.
ENDOCRINOLOGIST. A medical specialist whotreats diseases of the endocrine (glands) system,including diabetes.
ENDOGENOUS. With no apparent external cause,originating within the organism or tissue.
ENDOSCOPE. A special tube-shaped instrumentthat allows a doctor to examine the interior of or perform surgery inside the stomach or intestines. Anexamination of the digestive system with this instrument is called an endoscopy.
ENEMA. The injection of liquid through the anusinto the rectum in order to soften hardened stools.
ENERGY BALANCE. The number of calories burnedin an hour versus the number of calories taken in.
ENERGY DENSITY.The calories in a given portion offood.
ENRICHMENT.The addition of vitamins and minerals to improve the nutritional content of a food.
ENTEROPATHY. A disease of the intestinal tract.
ENZYME. A protein that change the rate of a chemical reaction within the body without themselvesbeing used up in the reaction.
EPHEDRINE. Central nervous system stimulant thatthat increases serum levels of norepinephrine. Theherbs ma huang, ephedra sinica and sida cordifoliacontain ephedrine, which structurally is similar toamphetamines.
EPI-PEN. A the br and name of the auto–injectableform of epinephrine. Used to stop or prevent anaphylaxis after expose to an allergen.
EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES. These studies look atfactors affecting the health and illness of populations.
EPIDEMIOLOGIST. A scientist or medical specialistwho studies the origins and spread of diseases inpopulations.
EPIGENETIC. A modification of gene expressionthat is independent of the DNA sequence of the gene.
EPILEPSY. A disorder of the brain that results inrecurrent, unprovoked seizures.
EPINEPHRINE. (also called adrenaline) A hormonereleased by the body during times of stress, it increaseheart rate and blood pressure. As a medication, it maybe used to constrict blood vessels, relax breathingtubes, and as a treatment for anaphylaxis.
EPITHELIAL CELL.Sheet of cells lining organs throughout the body.
ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION. The inability to get ormaintain an erection.
ERGOGENIC.Enhancing physical performance, particularly during athletic activity.
ERYTHROPOETIN (EPO). A hormone produced bythe kidneys that regulates the production of redblood cells. It is sometimes used by athletes to increasethe oxygen-carrying capacity of their blood.
ESOPHAGITIS. Inflammation of the esophagus.
ESOPHAGUS. Muscular tube through which foodpasses from the pharynx to the stomach.
ESSENTIAL AMINO ACID. An amino acid that isnecessary for health but that cannot be made by thebody and must be acquired through diet.
ESSENTIAL FATTY ACID. A type of fat that is necessary for the normal function of the brain and body andthat the body is unable to produce itself, making them‘essential’ to be taken through the diet and / orsupplements.
ESTROGEN. A hormone produced by the ovaries and testes. It stimulates the development of secondarysexual characteristics and induces menstruation inwomen.
ETHANOL.The chemical name of beverage alcohol.
ETIOLOGY. The cause of a disease or medicalcondition.
EVENING PRIMROSE OIL. Oil extracted from theseeds of the evening primrose, Oenothera biennis; contains GLA.
EXCIPIENT.An inert substance, such as certain gumsor starches, used to make drugs easier to take by allowing them to be formulated into tablets or liquids. Someartificial sweeteners are used as excipients.
EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGIST. A health professionalwho specializes in behaviors related to physicalactivity.
EXPECTORANT. A substance that stimulatesremoval of mucus from the lungs.
EXTRACT. A compound in which something hasbeen taken out so that it is now in a more purifiedstate.
EXTRAHEPATIC. Originating or occurring outsidethe liver.
Eating behaviors—Individual behaviors that affect food and beverage choices and intake patterns, such as what, where, when, why, and how much people eat.
Eating pattern (also called “dietary pattern”)—The combination of foods and beverages that constitute an individual’s complete dietary intake over time. This may be a description of a customary way of eating or a description of a combination of foods recommended for consumption. Specific examples include USDA Food Patterns and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Eating Plan. (See USDA Food Patterns and DASH Eating Plan.)
Edema is a symptom of a number of different kidney,liver, and circulatory disorders and is commonly treated with diuretics.
Energy drink—A beverage that contains caffeine as an ingredient, along with other ingredients, such as taurine, herbal supplements, vitamins, and added sugars. It is usually marketed as a product that can improve perceived energy, stamina, athletic performance, or concentration.
Enrichment—The addition of specific nutrients (i.e., iron, thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin) to refined grain products in order to replace losses of the nutrients that occur during processing. Enrichment of refined grains is not mandatory; however, those that are labeled as enriched (e.g., enriched flour) must meet the standard of identity for enrichment set by the FDA. When cereal grains are labeled as enriched, it is mandatory that they be fortified with folic acid. (The addition of specific nutrients to whole-grain products is referred to as fortification; see Fortification.)
Essential nutrient—A vitamin, mineral, fatty acid, or amino acid required for normal body functioning that either cannot be synthesized by the body at all, or cannot be synthesized in amounts adequate for good health, and thus must be obtained from a dietary source. Other food components, such as dietary fiber, while not essential, also are considered to be nutrients.
Estimated Average Requirements (EAR)—The average daily nutrient intake level estimated to meet the requirement of half the healthy individuals in a particular life stage and sex group.
Existing report—An existing systematic review, meta-analysis, or report by a Federal agency or leading scientific organization examined by the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee in its review of the scientific evidence. A systematic process was used by the Advisory Committee to assess the quality and comprehensiveness of the review for addressing the question of interest. (See Nutrition Evidence Library (NEL) systematic review.)
FACTORY FARMING. A term that refers to the application of techniques of mass production borrowedfrom industry to the raising of livestock, poultry,fish, and crops. It is also known as industrialagriculture.
FAMINE. Extended period of food shortage.
FAST. A period of at least 24 hours in which aperson eats nothing and drinks only water.
FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMIN. A vitamin that dissolves in and can be stored in body fat or the liver.
FAT. A nutrient that the body uses as an energysource. Fats produce 9 calories per gram.
FATTY ACID. A chemical unit that occurs naturally,either singly or combined, and consists of stronglylinked carbon and hydrogen atoms in a chain-likestructure. The end of the chain contains a reactiveacid group made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
FDA. The Food and Drug Administration is theUnited States Department of Health and HumanServices agency responsible for ensuring the safety and effectiveness of all drugs, biologics, vaccines, andmedical devices.
FECAL. Relating to feces.
FECES. Waste product of digestion formed in the large intestine. About 75% of its mass is water, the 1039 remainder is protein, fat, undigested roughage, drieddigestive juices, dead cells, and bacteria.
FEMALE ATHLETE TRIAD. A group of three disordersoften found together in female athletes, consisting ofdisordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis.
FENLURAMINE. An anorectic drug formerly marketed under the br and name Pondimin.
FERMENTATION. A reaction performed by yeast orbacteria to make alcohol.
FERRITIN. Iron is stored in the body, mainly in the liver, spleen and bone marrow, as ferritin.
FETUS. Unborn offspring.
FIBER.A complex carbohydrate not digested by thehuman body. Plants are the source of fiber.
FIBROMYALGIA. Widespread musculoskeletal pain and fatigue disorder for which the cause is stillunknown.
FISTULA. Abnormal, usually ulcerous duct betweentwo internal organs or between an internal organ andthe skin. When open at only one end it is called anincomplete fistula or sinus. The most common sites offistula are the rectum and the urinary organs.
FLATULENCE. The medical term for intestinal gasexpelled through the anus.
FLAXSEED. Linseed; the seed of flax, Linum usitatissimum, used as a source of oil for treating inflammation of the respiratory, intestinal, and urinarytracts, and as a dietary supplement.
FLUOXETINE. An antidepressant drug, sold underthe br and name Prozac.
FOIE GRAS. Liver of a duck or goose that has beenspecially fattened. It can be sold whole or prepared aspate or mousse.
FOLATE. One of the B vitamins, also called folicacid.
FOLIC ACID. Folate; a B-complex vitamin that isrequired for normal production of red blood cells andother physiological processes; abundant in green, leafyvegetables, liver, kidney, dried beans, and mushrooms.
FOOD ADDITIVE. Defined by the Federal Food,Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C) of 1938 as ‘‘anysubstance, the intended use of which results directlyor indirectly, in its becoming a component or otherwise affecting the characteristics of food.’’FOOD ALLERGY. A hypersensitivity reaction to particular food proteins involving the immune system.
FOOD FORTIFICATION. The public health policy ofadding essential trace elements and vitamins to foodstuffs to ensure that minimum dietary requirementsare met.
FOOD STAMP PROGRAM (FSP). The Food StampProgram provides a basic safety net to millions ofpeople. The program was born in the late 1930s, witha limited program in effect from 1939 to 1943. It wasrevived as a pilot program in 1961 and was extendednationwide in 1974. The current program was implemented in 1977 with the goal of alleviating hunger andmalnutrition by permitting low-income households toobtain a more nutritious diet through normal channelsof trade.
FOODBORNE ILLNESS.Illness caused by pathogenicbacteria transmitted to humans by food.
FORTIFICATION. The addition of vitamins andminerals to improve the nutritional content of a food.
FREDRICKSON CLASSIFICATION. A classificationsystem of hyperlipidemias by ultracentrifugation followed by electrophoresis that uses plasma appearance,triglyceride values, and total cholesterol values. Thereare five types: I, II, III, IV, and V.
FREE RADICAL. An unstable, highly reactive molecule that occurs naturally as a result of cellular metabolism, but can be increased by environmental toxins,ultraviolet and nuclear radiation. Free radicalsdamage cellular DNA and are thought to play a rolein aging, cancer, and other diseases. Free radicals canbe neutralized by antioxidants.
FREE-RANGE. Allowed to forage and move aroundwith relative freedom. Free-range chickens are typically raised on small farms or suburban back yards, and are often considered pets as well as egg producers.
FREEGAN. A vegan who obtains food outside themainstream economic system, most often by growingit, bartering for it, or scavenging for it in restaurant orsupermarket trash bins.
FRUCTOSE. A simple sugar that occurs naturally insucrose and fruit. It can be added in combination withsucrose in the form of high-fructose corn syrup(HFCS) to sweeten foods because it is sweeter thansucrose. Large amounts of fructose can cause diarrheain infants and young children.
FRUITARIAN. A vegetarian who eats only plantbased products (fruits, seeds, and nuts) that can beobtained without killing the plant.
FUNCTIONAL DEFICIENCY. The depleted state of aparticular nutrient that precipitates compromisedfunction within the brain or body.
FUNCTIONAL FOOD. Also called nutraceuticals,these products are marketed as having health benefitsor disease-preventing qualities beyond their basic supplyof energy and nutrients. Often these health benefitscome in the form of added herbs, minerals, vitamins, etc.
FUNDOPLICATION. A surgical procedure thatincreases pressure on the LES by stretching and wrapping the upper part of the stomach around thesphincter.
Fats—One of the macronutrients and a source of energy. (See Solid Fats and Oils.)
Fiber—Total fiber is the sum of dietary fiber and functional fiber. Dietary fiber consists of nondigestible carbohydrates and lignin that are intrinsic and intact in plants (i.e., the fiber naturally occurring in foods). Functional fiber consists of isolated, nondigestible carbohydrates that have beneficial physiological effects in humans. Functional fibers are either extracted from natural sources or are synthetically manufactured and added to foods, beverages, and supplements.
Food access—Ability to obtain and maintain levels of sufficient amounts of healthy, safe, and affordable food for all family members in various settings including where they live, learn, work and play. Food access is often measured by distance to a store or the number of stores in an area; individual-level resources such as family income or vehicle availability; and neighborhood-level indicators of resources, such as average income of the neighborhood and the availability of public transportation.
Food and nutrition policies—Regulations, laws, policymaking actions, or formal or informal rules established by formal organizations or government units. Food and nutrition policies are those that influence food settings and/or eating behaviors to improve food and/or nutrition choices, and potentially, health outcomes (e.g., body weight).
Food categories—A method of grouping similar foods in the ir as-consumed forms, for descriptive purposes. The USDA’s Agricultural Research Service (ARS) has created 150 mutually exclusive food categories to account for each food or beverage item reported in What We Eat in America (WWEIA), the food intake survey component of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (for more information, visit: http://seprl.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=23429). Examples of WWEIA Food Categories include soups, nachos, and yeast breads. In contrast to food groups, items are not disaggregated into their component parts for assignment to food categories. For example, all pizzas are put into the pizza category.
Food groups—A method of grouping similar foods for descriptive and guidance purposes. Food groups in the USDA Food Patterns are defined as vegetables, fruits, grains, dairy, and protein foods. Some of these groups are divided into subgroups, such as dark-green vegetables or whole grains, which may have intake goals or limits. Foods are grouped within food groups based on their similarity in nutritional composition and other dietary benefits. For assignment to food groups, mixed dishes are disaggregated into their major component parts.
Food hub—A community space anchored by a food store with adjacent social and financial services where businesses or organizations can actively manage the aggregation, distribution, and marketing of source-identified food products to strengthen their ability to satisfy wholesale, retail, and institutional demand.
Food pattern modeling—The process of developing and adjusting daily intake amounts from food categories or groups to meet specific criteria, such as meeting nutrient intake goals, limiting nutrients or other food components, or varying proportions or amounts of specific food categories or groups. This methodology includes using current food consumption data to determine the mix and proportions of foods to include in each group, using current food composition data to select a nutrient-dense representative for each food, calculating nutrient profiles for each food group using these nutrient-dense representative foods, and modeling various combinations of foods and amounts to meet specific criteria. (See USDA Food Patterns.)
Fortification—As defined by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the deliberate addition of one or more essential nutrients to a food, whether or not it is normally contained in the food. Fortification may be used to prevent or correct a demonstrated deficiency in the population or specific population groups; restore naturally occurring nutrients lost during processing, storage, or handling; or to add a nutrient to a food at the level found in a comparable traditional food. When cereal grains are labeled as enriched, it is mandatory that they be fortified with folic acid.
GALACTOSE. A monosaccharide known as milksugar.
GALACTOSEMIA. An inherited metabolic disorderin which galactose accumulates in the blood due to adeficiency in an enzyme that catalyzes its conversion toglucose.
GALLSTONE. Stones that form in the gallbladder orbile duct from excess cholesterol or salts.
GASTROENTEROLOGIST. A physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of thestomach and intestines.
GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE (GERD). Adisorder caused by the backward flow of stomachacid into the esophagus. It is usually caused by atemporary or permanent change in the sphincter thatseparates the lower end of the esophagus from thestomach.
GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX. The flow of stomachcontents into the esophagus.
GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT (GI TRACT). The tubeconnecting and including the organs and paths responsible for processing food in the body. These are themouth, the esophagus, the stomach, the liver, the gallbladder, the pancreas, the small intestine, the largeintestine, and the rectum.
GASTROINTESTINAL. Relating to the stomach andintestines.
GENE DOPING. Use of gene transfer technology byathletes to improve performance.
GENE EXPRESSION. The process by which the codedinformation of a gene is translated into the proteins orRNA present and operating in the cell.
GENE. A section of DNA that includes information about how to create certain proteins.
GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE (GRAS). A phraseused by the federal government to refer to exceptionsto the FD&C Act of 1938 as modified by the FoodAdditives Amendment of 1958. Artificial food preservatives that have a scientific consensus on their safetybased on either their use prior to 1958 or to wellknown scientific information may be given GRASstatus.
GENOME. A single haploid set of chromosomes and their genes.
GENOTYPE. All or part of the genetic constitutionof an individual or group.
GERM.In grains, the center part of the grain kernelthat contains vitamins and minerals not found in the rest of the kernel. It is removed from refined (white)flour.
GHRELIN. A recently discovered peptide hormonesecreted by cells in the lining of the stomach. Ghrelin isimportant in appetite regulation and maintaining thebody’s energy balance.
GINGKO BILOBA. A deciduous tree native to northern China whose leaves are used to make an extractthought to improve memory and relieve depression.
GLA. Gamma-linolenic acid; an essential fatty acidfound in evening primrose oil.
GLAUCOMA. A condition where pressure withinthe eye causes damage to the optic nerve, whichsends visual images to the brain.
GLUCAGON.A hormone made by the alpha cells ofthe pancreas that helps regulate blood sugar (glucose)levels by signaling liver and muscle cells to releasesugar stored as glycogen.
GLUCOMANNAN. A plant substance composed oflong chains of the sugars glucose and mannose. It isnot digested, and may be ised as a laxative. Thematerial has been claimed to provide a feeling ofabdominal and intestinal fullness.
GLUCONEOGENESIS.The process of making glucose(sugar) from its own breakdown products or from thebreakdown products of lipids or proteins. Gluconeogenesis occurs mainly in cells of the liver or kidney.
GLUCOSAMINE. A type of amino sugar that isthought to help in the formation and repair of cartilage. It can be extracted from crab or shrimp shells andused as a dietary supplement by people with OA.
GLUCOSE. A simple sugar that results from thebreakdown of carbohydrates. Glucose circulates inthe blood and is the main source of energy for thebody.
GLUTEN. An elastic protein found in wheat andsome other grains that gives cohesiveness to breaddough. Some people are allergic to gluten and cannotdigest products containing wheat.
GLYCEMIC INDEX (GI). A system devised at theUniversity of Toronto in 1981 that ranks carbohydrates in individual foods on a gram-for-gram basisin regard to their effect on blood glucose levels in the first two hours after a meal. There are two commonlyused GIs, one based on pure glucose as the referencestandard and the other based on white bread.
GLYCEMIC LOAD (GL). A more practical ranking ofhow an amount of a particular food will affect bloodglucose levels. The glycemic index (GI) is part of theequation for determining ranking.
GLYCERIN. A sweet syrupy alcohol obtained fromanimal fats. It is often used in cough syrups and otherliquid medications to give them a smooth texture.
GLYCEROL. The central structural component oftriglycerides and phospholipids. It is made naturallyby animals and plants; the ratio of atoms in glycerol isthree carbons, eight hydrogens, and three oxygens.
GLYCOGEN. The storage form of glucose found inthe liver and muscles.
GULF WAR SYNDROME (GWS). A disorder characterized by a wide range of symptoms, including skinrashes, migraine headaches, chronic fatigue, arthritis, and muscle cramps, possibly related to military servicein the Persian Gulf war of 1991. GWS was brieflyattributed to the troops’ high consumption of beverages containing aspartame, but this explanationhas been discredited.
HDL CHOLESTEROL. High-density lipoprotein;‘good’ cholesterol that helps protect against heartdisease.
HEALTHY EATING INDEX (HEI). A measure of dietquality that assesses conformance to federal dietaryguidance.
HEART ATTACK. A heart attack occurs when bloodflow to the heart muscle is interrupted. This deprivesthe heart muscle of oxygen, causing tissue damage ortissue death.
HEART DISEASE. Any disorder of the heart or itsblood supply, including heart attack, atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease.
HEAT EXHAUSTION. A mild form of heat stroke,characterized by faintness, dizziness, and heavysweating.
HELICOBACTER PYLORI. A spiral-shaped Gramnegative bacterium that lives in the lining of the stomach and is known to cause gastric ulcers.
HEMATEMESIS. The medical term for bloody vomitus.
HEMODIALYSIS. Type of dialysis to clean wastesfrom the blood after the kidneys have failed: theblood travels through tubes to a dialyzer, a machinethat removes wastes and extra fluid. The cleanedblood then goes back into the body.
HEMORRHAGIC. Relating to escape of blood fromthe vessels. Bleeding.
HEMORRHOID. Swollen and inflamed veins aroundthe anus or rectum.
HERB. A plant used in cooking or for medicalpurposes. Examples include Echinacea and ginseng.
HERBIVORE.An animal whose diet consists primarily or entirely of plant matter. Herbivorous animalsinclude deer, sheep, cows, horses, elephants, giraffes, and bison.
HIATUS HERNIA. A protrusion of part of the stomach through the diaphragm to a position next to theesophagus.
HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE. Blood pressure is the forceof the blood on the arteries as the heart pumps bloodthrough the body. High blood pressure, or hypertension, is a condition where there is too much pressure,which can lead to heart and kidney problems.
HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN (HDL). Often referredto as good cholesterol. This takes cholesterol awayfrom the cells and back to the liver, where it’s brokendown or excreted.
HIGH-INTENSITY SWEETENER. Another term fornonnutritive sweetener, used because these substancesadd sweetness to food with very little volume.
HIGHLY ACTIVE ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY (HAART).
HINDUISM. A broad group of religious and philosophical beliefs from India. It is characterized by beliefin reincarnation, one God with many forms, and thepursuit of transcending the evils of earth.
HISTAMINE. A substance that is released by thebody in the presence of allergens. It stimulates dilationof blood vessels, constriction of breathing tubes, anddecreased blood pressure.
HIV infection that has led to certain opportunisticinfections, cancers, or a CD4+ T-lymphocyte (helpercell) blood cell count lower than 200/mL.
HOMEOPATHIC. Relating to homeopathy, a systemof treating diseases by giving people very small dosesof natural substances which, in healthy people, causethe same symptoms as the disease being treated.
HOMEOSTASIS. The complex set of regulatorymechanisms that works to keep the body at optimalphysiological and chemical stability in order for cellular reactions to occur.
HOMOCYSTEINE. An amino-acid product of animal metabolism that at high blood levels is associatedwith an increased risk of cardiovascular disease(CVD).
HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY (HRT). Use ofthe female hormones estrogen and progestin (a synthetic form of progesterone) to replace those the bodyno longer produces after menopause.
HORMONE. A chemical substance produced in the body that controls and regulates the activity of certaincells or organs.
HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE (HGH). A hormoneproduced in the pituitary gl and that stimulates growthof bone and muscle.
HYBRIDIZATION. Relating to a plant producedfrom a cross between two genetically different plants.
HYDROCARBON. A substance consisting only ofcarbon and hydrogen atoms.
HYDROGENATED FATS. A type of fat made by theprocess of hydrogenation, which turns liquid oils intosolid fat. Bio-hydrogenation occurs in ruminant animals (eg. cows) and so small amounts of hydrogenatedfats are found in butter, dairy foods and meat butthese are accepted as being harmless. The commercialhydrogenation of oils produces large quantities ofhydrogenated fats and have been implicated in the development of coronary heart disease and impairedcell signalling in the brain.
HYDROGENATED. Usually refers to partial hydrogenation of oil, a process where hydrogen is added tooils to reduce the degree of unsaturation. This converts fatty acids from a cis to trans fatty acids.
HYDROGENATION. The addition of hydrogenatoms to carbon double bonds to make them in tosingle bonds.
HYDROLYZE.To break apart through reaction withwater.
HYDROXYLAPATITE. The main mineral componentof bone, of which Zinc is a constituent.
HYPERCALCEMIA. Abnormally high levels of calcium in the blood.
HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA. High levels of cholesterol in the blood.
HYPERGLYCEMIA. A condition where there is toomuch glucose or sugar in the blood.
HYPERHYDRATION. Excess water content of thebody.
HYPERLIPIDEMIA. Elevation of lipid levels (fats) inthe bloodstream. These lipids include cholesterol, cholesterol compounds, phospholipids and triglycerides,all carried in the blood as part of large molecules calledlipoproteins.
HYPERPLASTIC OBESITY. Excessive weight gain inchildhood, characterized by the creation of new fatcells.
HYPERTENSION. High blood pressure.
HYPERTHYROIDISM. Over production of the thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.
HYPERTROPHIC OBESITY. Excessive weight gain inadulthood, characterized by expansion of alreadyexisting fat cells.
HYPERURICEMIA. High levels of uric acid in the blood.
HYPOGLYCEMIA. Abnormally low blood sugar levels.
HYPOLIPIDEMIC. Promoting the reduction of lipidconcentrations in the serum.
HYPONATREMIA. Inadequate sodium levels in the body, possibly caused by loss of sodium through perspiration, diarrhea, or vomiting, and replacement offluids with water that does not contain adequateelectrolytes.
HYPOTHYROIDISM. A disorder in which the thyroid gl and in the neck produces too little thyroid 1043 hormone. One of the functions of thyroid hormone isto regulate metabolic rate.
Healthy Eating Index (HEI)—A measure of diet quality that assesses adherence to the Dietary Guidelines. The HEI is used to monitor diet quality in the United States and to examine relationships between diet and health-related outcomes. The HEI is a scoring metric that can be applied to any defined set of foods, such as previously collected dietary data, a defined menu, or a market basket. Thus, the HEI can be used to assess the quality of food assistance packages, menus, and the U.S. food supply.
Healthy Mediterranean-Style Eating Pattern—A pattern that exemplifies healthy eating, designed by modifying the Healthy U.S.-Style Pattern to more closely reflect eating patterns that have been associated with positive health outcomes in studies of Mediterranean-Style diets. This pattern is evaluated based on its similarity to food group intakes of groups with positive health outcomes in the se studies rather than on meeting specified nutrient standards. It differs from the Healthy U.S.-Style Pattern in that it includes more fruits and seafood and less dairy.
Healthy U.S.-Style Eating Pattern—A pattern that exemplifies healthy eating based on the types and proportions of foods Americans typically consume, but in nutrient-dense forms and appropriate amounts, designed to meet nutrient needs while not exceeding calorie requirements. It is substantially unchanged from the primary USDA Food Patterns of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines. This pattern is evaluated in comparison to meeting Dietary Reference Intakes for essential nutrients and staying within limits set by the IOM or Dietary Guidelines for over consumed food components. It aligns closely with the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Eating Plan, a guide for healthy eating based on the DASH diet which was tested in clinical trials. (See Nutrient dense and DASH Eating Plan.)
Healthy Vegetarian Eating Pattern—A pattern that exemplifies healthy eating, designed by modifying the Healthy U.S.-Style Pattern to more closely reflect eating patterns reported by self-identified vegetarians. This pattern is evaluated in comparison to meeting Dietary Reference Intakes for essential nutrients and staying within limits set by the IOM or Dietary Guidelines for over consumed food components. It differs from the Healthy U.S.-Style Pattern in that it includes more legumes, soy products, nuts and seeds, and whole grains, and no meat, poultry, or seafood.
Health—A state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
High-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol)—Blood cholesterol often called “good” cholesterol; carries cholesterol from tissues to the liver, which removes it from the body.
High-intensity sweeteners—Ingredients commonly used as sugar substitutes or sugar alternatives to sweeten and enhance the flavor of foods and beverages. People may choose these sweeteners in place of sugar for a number of reasons, including that they contribute few or no calories to the diet. Because high-intensity sweeteners are many times sweeter than table sugar (sucrose), smaller amounts of high-intensity sweeteners are needed to achieve the same level of sweetness as sugar in food and beverages. (Other terms commonly used to refer to sugar substitutes or alternatives include non-caloric, low-calorie, no-calorie, and artificial sweeteners, which may have different definitions and applications. A high-intensity sweetener may or may not be non-caloric, low-calorie, no-calorie, or artificial sweeteners.)
Household food insecurity—Circumstances in which the availability of nutritionally adequate and safe food, or the ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways, is limited or uncertain.
Hypertension—A condition, also known as high blood pressure, in which blood pressure remains elevated over time. Hypertension makes the heart work too hard, and the high force of the blood flow can harm arteries and organs, such as the heart, kidneys, brain, and eyes. Uncontrolled hypertension can lead to heart attacks, heart failure, kidney disease, stroke, and blindness. Prehypertension is defined as blood pressure that is higher than normal but not high enough to be defined as hypertension.
IDEAL WEIGHT. Weight corresponding to the lowest death rate for individuals of a specific height, gender, and age.
IDIOPATHIC INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. Increased fluid pressure within the blood vessels supplying thebrain. Obese women are at increased risk of developing this disorder.
IDIOPATHIC. Used to describe a disease or disorder that has no known cause.
ILEUM. The last section of the small intestine located between the jejunum and the large intestine.
IMMUNE SYSTEM. The integrated body system of organs, tissues, cells, and cell products such as antibodies that protects the body from foreign organismsor substances.
IMMUNOCOMPROMISED. Having an impaired orweakened immune system. The immune system protects the body from foreign substances, cells, andtissues.
IMMUNOSUPPRESSANT. Suppression of the immunesystem.
IMPACTION. The medical term for a mass of fecalmatter that has become lodged in the lower digestivetract. Removal of this material is called disimpaction.
IMPULSIVITY. Acting or speaking too quickly (uponimpulse) without first thinking of the consequences.
INDICATED. In medical terminology, reviewed andapproved by the United States Food & Drug Administration, or the comparable agency in other nations,for a specific use.
INFLAMMATION. A response of body tissues toinjury or irritation characterized by pain and swelling and redness and heat.
INSOLUBLE FIBER. Fiber that cannot dissolve inwater; found in whole grains, breads, and cereals aswell as carrots, cucumbers, zucchini, and tomatoes.
INSOMNIA. The inability to sleep.
INSULIN RESISTANCE SYNDROME. A medical condition in which insulin fails to function normally inregulating blood glucose (sugar) levels.
INSULIN RESISTANCE. A condition in which normalamounts of insulin in a person’s blood are not adequate to produce an insulin response from fat, muscle, and liver cells. Insulin resistance is often a precursor oftype 2 (adult-onset) diabetes.
INSULIN. A hormone made in the pancreas that isessential for the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins, and that regulates blood sugar levels.
INTEGRATIVE MEDICINE.A medical outlook combining aspects of conventional and alternative medicines.
INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION. Symptoms thatoccur when the leg muscles do not receive the oxygenrich blood required during exercise, thus causingcramping in the hips, thighs or calves.
INTERNATIONAL OSTEOPOROSIS FEDERATION (IOF).
INTESTINAL FLORA. The sum of all bacteria andfungi that live in the intestines. It is required to breakdown nutrients, fight off pathogens and helps the bodybuild the vitamin E and K. An unbalanced intestinalflora can lead to many health problems.
INULIN. Naturally occurring oligosaccharides(several simple sugars linked together) produced bymany types of plants. They belong to a class of carbohydrates known as fructans.
ION. An atom or molecule that has an electriccharge. in the body ions are collectively referred toas electrolytes.
IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA. The inability to makesufficient red blood cells that results in fatigue, shortness of breath, headaches and in ability to fight infections. It is common in pregnancy.
IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME. A chronic colon disorder that involves constipation and diarrhea, abdominal pain, and mucus in the stool.
ISOFLAVONES. Estrogen-like compounds in plants.
IgE is measured in allergy tests.
IgE. A substance in the body that triggers the bodyto release histamine when an allergen enters the body.
Insoluble fiber moves through the digestive systemalmost undigested and gives bulk to stools. Solublefiber dissolves in water and helps keep stools soft.
It has a negative charge when a free or unpaired electron exists making it chemically unstable and likely toinitiate chemical reactions.
It has been associated with travel and residence intropical areas.
JAUNDICE. A condition in which bilirubin, a wasteproduct caused by the normal breakdown or red bloodcells, builds up in the body faster than the liver canbreak it down. People with jaundice develop yellowishskin and the whites of their eyes become yellow. Thecondition can occur in newborns and people with liverdamage.
JEJUNUM.The section of the small intestine locatedbetween the duodenum and the ileum.
Juice fasts are one type pf detoxification diet.
KASHIN–BECK DISEASE. A disorder of the bones andjoints of the hands and fingers, elbows, knees, andankles of children and adolescents who slowly developstiff deformed joints, shortened limb length and shortstature. The disorder is endemic in some areas of eastern Siberia, Korea, China and Tibet.
KESHAN’S DISEASE. A potentially fatal form of cardiomyopathy (disease of the heart muscle).
KETOACIDOSIS. A condition due to starvation oruncontrolled Type I diabetes. Ketones are acid compounds that form in the blood when the body breaksdown fats and proteins. Symptoms include abdominalpain, vomiting, rapid breathing, extreme tiredness, and drowsiness.
KETONE. Chemicals produced by fat breakdown;molecule containing a double-bonded oxygen linkedto two carbons.
KETOSIS. An abnormal increase in the number ofketone bodies in the body, produced when the liverbreaks down fat into fatty acids and ketone bodies.
KIDNEY DIALYSIS. A process where blood is filteredthrough a dialysis machine to remove waste productsthat would normally be removed by the kidneys. Thefiltered blood is then circulated back into the patient.
KIDNEY STONES. A small, hard mass in the kidneythat forms from chemical deposits. Kidney stonescan be extremely painful and are often difficult todiagnose.
KILOJOULE. 1,000 joules; a unit equivalent to 0.239calories.
KINASE. An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer ofphosphate groups from high-energy phosphate-containing molecules, such as ATP, to another molecule.
KREBS CYCLE. Cellular reaction that breaks downnumerous nutrients and provides building blocks forother molecules.
KWASHIORKOR. Severe malnutrition characterizedby swollen belly, hair loss, and loss of skin pigment.
Ketosis is a common side effect of low-carbohydratediets or VLCDs. If continued for a long period of time,ketosis can cause serious damage to the kidneys andliver.
L-CARNITINE. A molecule in muscle that is responsible for transporting fatty acids across mitochondrialmembranes; obtained from meat and milk.
L-CYSTEINE. A sulfur-containing amino acid produced by enzymatic or acid hydrolysis of proteins.
L-HISTIDINE. An essential amino acid importantfor the growth and repair of tissues.
LACTO-OVO VEGETARIAN. People who do not eatmeat, but do include dairy products and eggs in the irdiets.
LACTOSE INTOLERANCE. A condition in which thebody does not produce enough lactase, an enzymeneeded to digest lactose (milk sugar). Ovolactovegetarians with lactose intolerance often choose to use soymilk, almond milk, or other milk substitutes as sourcesof protein.
LACTOSE. Milk sugar; a disaccharide sugar presentin milk that is made up of one glucose molecule andone galactose molecule.
LACTOVEGETARIAN. A vegetarian who uses milk and cheese in addition to plant-based foods.
LANGUAGE EXPERIENCE APPROACH. An approachto reading instruction based on activities and storiesdeveloped from personal experiences of the learner.
LANOLIN. A greasy substance extracted fromwool, often used in h and creams and other cosmetics.
LAPAROSCOPIC. Pertaining to a surgical procedurewhich uses an instrument which can be inserted intothe body to view structures within the abdomen andpelvis.
LARGE INTESTINE. The terminal part of the digestive system, site of water recycling, nutrient absorption, and waste processing located in the abdominalcavity. It consists of the caecum, the colon, and therectum.
LAXATIVE. A substance that stimulates movementof food through the bowels. Laxatives are used to treatconstipation.
LDL CHOLESTEROL. Low-density lipoprotein containing a high proportion of cholesterol that is associated with the development of arteriosclerosis.
LEAVENING. Yeast or other agents used for risingbread.
LECTINS. Protein substances found in foods thatbind with carbohydrates in blood causing it to clot.
LEPTIN. A hormone produced by fat cells (adiposetissue) that tells the brain that the body has eatencalories and should stop eating.
LIGNAN. Compounds in plants that have antioxidant and estrogenic activities.
LIPASE. An enzyme produced from the pancreasthat breaks down fats.
LIPID PEROXIDATION. This refers to the chemicalbreakdown of fats.
LIPID. Group of chemicals, usually fats, that donot dissolve in water, but dissolve in ether.
LIPODYSTROPHY. The medical term for redistribution of body fat in response to HAART, insulin injections in diabetics, or rare hereditary disorders.
LIPOPROTEIN. A combination of fat and proteinthat transports lipids in the blood.
LIPOTROPIC. Factors that promote the utilizationof fat by the body.
LIQUID MEAL REPLACEMENTS (LMRS). A generalterm for prepackaged liquid shakes or milk-like drinksintended to substitute for one or more meals a day aspart of a weight-loss regimen or source of nutrition forpeople who cannot eat solid foods.
LONG LIFE COCKTAIL. A drink consisting of oneteaspoon of powdered psyllium husks or one tablespoon of ground or milled flaxseed in 8 oz (237 ml)cran-water.
LOW BIRTH WEIGHT. A low birth weight infant isone who is born after the the normal gestationalperiod (38-42 weeks) but weights less than 2.5 kgs(5.5 pounds) at birth.
LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN (LDL) CHOLESTEROL. Atype of cholesterol in the blood that is considered to bebad for the body. High levels of LDL is a risk factorfor heart disease.
LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER (LES). Ring of muscle at the bottom of the esophagus that acts like a valvebetween the esophagus and stomach.
LYCOPENE. A plant pigment that appears red innatural light and is responsible for the red color oftomatoes. Grapefruit is rich in lycopene, which is apowerful antioxidant and is thought to retard skinaging and may help to protect against chronic diseases such as heart disease and cancer.
LYMPHOMA. Any of various usually malignanttumors that arise in the lymph nodes or in other lymphoid tissue.
Lean meat and lean poultry—Any meat or poultry that contains less than 10 g of fat, 4.5 g or less of saturated fats, and less than 95 mg of cholesterol per 100 g and per labeled serving size, based on USDA definitions for food label use. Examples include 95% lean cooked ground beef, beef top round steak or roast, beef tenderloin, pork top loin chop or roast, pork tenderloin, ham or turkey deli slices, skinless chicken breast, and skinless turkey breast.
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL-cholesterol)—Blood cholesterol often called “bad” cholesterol; carries cholesterol to arteries and tissues. A high LDL-cholesterol level in the blood leads to a buildup of cholesterol in arteries.
MACADAMIA NUT. A hard-shelled nut resembling afilbert, produced by an evergreen tree native to Australia and cultivated extensively in Hawaii. The nut isnamed for John Macadam, an Australian chemist.
MACRO MINERALS. Minerals that are needed by thebody in relatively large amounts. They include sodium,potassium, chlorine, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium.
MACRONUTRIENT:. A nutrient needed in largequantities.
MACULAR DEGENERATION.A chronic disease of theeyes caused by the deterioration of the central portionof the retina, known as the macula, which is responsible for focusing central vision in the eye.
MALABSORPTION SYNDROME. A condition characterized by indigestion, bloating, diarrhea, loss of appetite, and weakness, caused by poor absorption ofnutrients from food as a result of giardiasis, otherbowel disorders, or certain surgical procedures involving the digestive tract.
MALABSORPTION. Poor absorption of nutrients bythe small intestine, difficulty in the digestion ofnutrients.
MALIGNANT. Unfavorable, tending to producedeterioration or death. For a tumor, it generallymeans cancerous.
MALNOURISHED.Lack of adequate nutrients in the diet.
MALNUTRITION. Poor nutrition because of aninsufficient or poorly balanced diet or faulty digestionor utilization of foods.
MALTOSE. A disaccharide known as malt sugar.
MEGACOLON. A condition in which the colonbecomes stretched far beyond its usual size. Childrenwith long-term constipation may develop megacolon.
MENINGITIS. A serious infection of the membranessurrounding the brain.
MENOPAUSE. Phase in a woman’s life during whichovulation and menstruation end.
METABOLIC RATE. The BMR adjusted by an activity factor with the Harris-Benedict Formula to determine total daily energy expenditure in calories orkilojoules.
METABOLIC SYNDROME X. Also called the insulinresistance syndrome or pre-diabetic syndrome. Thesyndrome is closely associated with hypertriglyceridemia and with low HDL-‘‘good’’ cholesterol.
METABOLIC SYNDROME. A group of risk factorsrelated to insulin resistance and associated with anincreased risk of heart disease. Patients with anythree of the following five factors are defined as havingmetabolic syndrome: waist circumference over 102 cm(41 in) for men and 88 cm (34.6 in) for women; hightriglyceride levels in the blood; low levels of HDLcholesterol; high blood pressure or the use of bloodpressure medications; and impaired levels of fastingblood glucose (higher than 110 mg/dL).
METABOLIC. Refers to the chemical reactions inliving things.
METABOLISM. The process by which food is converted into energy.
METABOLIZE. To produce the chemical changes inthe body’s living cells that provide energy for vitalprocesses and activities.
METABOLOME. All of the metabolites found in the cells and fluids of the body under specific dietary andphysiological conditions.
METALLOENZYME. An enzyme that contains atightly bound metal ion, such as cobalt, copper, ironor zinc.
METHIONINE. A crystalline amino acid found inmany protein foods. It is sometimes taken as a supplement during a detox diet.
METRECAL. The first product marketed as an LMRfor weight reduction, introduced in 1960 by MeadJohnson.
MICROFLORA. This term describes the collection ofsmall micro-organisms, such as bacteria , that colonize the gastrointestinal tract (gut).
MICRONUTRIENT. Nutrients needed by the body insmall amounts. They include vitamins and minerals.
MICROORGANISM. Bacteria and protists; singlecelled organisms.
MINERAL. An inorganic substance found in the earth that is necessary in small quantities for thebody to maintain a health. Examples: zinc, copper,iron.
MITOCHONDRIA. Small bodies within a cell thatharvest energy for use by the cell.
MITRAL VALVE. A heart valve, also called the bicuspid valve which allow blood to flow from the leftauricle to the ventricle, but does not allow the bloodto flow backwards.
MOLECULAR WEIGHT. The total of the atomicweights of the atoms in a molecule.
MONO DIET. A type of detoxification diet based onthe use of only one food or beverage. Some versions ofthe grapefruit diet are essentially mono diets.
MONO-AMINE OXIDASE INHIBITOR. A class of antidepressant drugs that act by blocking an ezyme thatdestroys some of the hormones in the bRain. Thesedrugs have a large number of food and drug interactions.
MONOSACCHARIDE.Any of several carbohydrates, such as glucose, fructose, galactose, that cannot bebroken down to simpler sugars.
MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE. MSG; sodium glutamate; a salt derived from glutamic acid that is used toenhance the flavor of foods.
MONOUNSATURATED FAT. A fat or fatty acid withonly one double-bonded carbon atom in its molecule.
MORBID OBESITY. A term used to describe individuals 100 lb (45 kg) or more than 50% overweightand/or who have a body mass index above 40.
MTHFR. Methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase; anenzyme that regulates folic acid and maintains bloodlevels of homocysteine.
MUCILAGE.A sticky substance used as an adhesive.
MUCOSA. Lining of the digestive tract. in the mouth, stomach, and small intestine, the mucosa contains glands that produce juices to digest food.
MUCUS. Thick, viscous, gel-like material thatfunctions to moisten and protect inner body surfaces.
MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. A chronic degenerative disease of the central nervous system in which gradualdestruction of myelin occurs in patches throughout thebrain or spinal cord, interfering with the nerve pathways and causing muscular weakness, loss of coordination and speech and visual disturbances.
MYOGLOBIN. Oxygen storage protein in muscle.
MYPYRAMID. A guide of what to eat each daycreated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture basedon the 2005 dietary guidelines for Americans.
Macronutrient—A dietary component that provides energy. Macronutrients include protein, fats, carbohydrates, and alcohol.
Meat (also known as “red meat”)—All forms of beef, pork, lamb, veal, goat, and non-bird game (e.g., venison, bison, elk).
Meats and poultry—Foods that come from the flesh of l and animals and birds. in the USDA Food Patterns, organs ( such as liver) are also considered to be meat or poultry.
Mixed dishes—Savory food items eaten as a single entity that include foods from more than one food group. These foods often are mixtures of grains, protein foods, vegetables, and/or dairy. Examples of mixed dishes include burgers, sandwiches, tacos, burritos, pizzas, macaroni and cheese, stir-fries, spaghetti and meatballs, casseroles, soups, egg rolls, and Caesar salad.
Moderate alcohol consumption—Up to one drink per day for women and up to two drinks per day for men. One drink-equivalent is described using the reference beverages of 12 fl oz of regular beer (5% alcohol), 5 fl oz of wine (12% alcohol), or 1.5 fl oz of 80 proof (40%) distilled spirits. One drink-equivalent is described as containing contains 14 g (0.6 fl oz) of pure alcohol.[1]
Monounsaturated Fatty Acids (MUFAs)—Fatty acids that have one double bond and are usually liquid at room temperature. Plant sources rich in MUFAs include vegetable oils (e.g., canola, olive, high oleic safflower and sunflower), as well as nuts.
Multi-component intervention—Interventions that use a combination of strategies to promote behavior change. These strategies can be employed across or within different settings or levels of influence.
Multi-level intervention—Interventions are those that target change at the individual level as well as additional levels, such as in the community (e.g., public health campaigns), schools (e.g., education), and food service (e.g., menu modification).
NARCISSISM. Excessive admiration of one’s self.
NARCOTIC. An agent that causes insensibility orstupor; usually refers to opioids given to relieve pain.
NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. A private, nonprofit society of scholars with a mandate to advise theUnited States government on scientific and technicalmatters.
NATIONAL OSTEOPOROSIS FOUNDATION (NOF).
NATIONAL OSTEOPOROSIS SOCIETY (NOS).The onlyUK national charity dedicated to eradicating osteoporosis and promoting bone health in both men andwomen.
NATIONAL WEIGHT CONTROL REGISTRY (NWCR).
NATUROPATHIC MEDICINE. An alternative systemof healing that uses primarily homeopathy, herbalmedicine, and hydrotherapy and rejects most conventional drugs as toxic.
NATUROPATHY.A system of disease treatment thatemphasizes natural means of health care, as water,natural foods, dietary adjustments, massage andmanipulation, and electrotherapy, rather than conventional drugs and surgery. Naturopaths(practitioners of naturopathy) often recommend juicefasts as a way of cleansing the body.
NAUSEA. Unpleasant sensation in the gut that precedes vomitingNEPHRONS. A tiny part of the kidneys. Each kidney is made up of about 1 million nephrons, which arethe working units of the kidneys, removing wastes andextra fluids from the blood.
NEPHROTIC SYNDROME. A disorder marked by adeficiency of albumin (a protein) in the blood and itsexcretion in the urine.
NERVINE. An agent that calms nervousness, tension or excitement.
NERVOUS SYSTEM. The brain, spinal cord, andnerves that extend throughout the body.
NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS. Neural tube defects areserious birth defects that involve incomplete development of the brain, spinal cord and/or protective coverings for these organs.
NEUROGENIC BLADDER. An unstable bladder associated with a neurological condition, such as diabetes,stroke or spinal cord injury.
NEUROPATHY. Condition of weakness affectingthe nervous system.
NEUROTOXIC. A substance that has a specific toxiceffect on the nervous system.
NEUROTRANSMITTER. One of a group of chemicalssecreted by a nerve cell (neuron) to carry a chemicalmessage to another nerve cell, often as a way of transmitting a nerve impulse. Examples of neurotransmitters include acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin, andnorepinephrine.
NONNUTRITIVE SWEETENER. Any sweetener thatoffers little or no energy value when added to food.
NONPOLAR. Without a separation if charge withinthe molecule; likely to be hydrophobic.
NONSTEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUGS(NSAIDS). A class of drugs commonly given to treat theinflammation and pain associated with both RA andOA. NSAIDs work by blocking prostaglandins, whichare hormone-like compounds that cause pain, fever,muscle cramps, and inflammation. Some NSAIDs areprescription drugs while others are available in overthe-counter (OTC) formulations.
NOREPINEPHRINE. Hormone released by the sympathetic nervous system onto the heart, blood vessels,1048 and other organs, and by the adrenal gl and into thebloodstream as part of the fight-or-flight response.
NORMOTENSIVES. Individuals with normal bloodpressure.
NUTRICEUTICAL (ALSO SPELLED NUTRACEUTICAL).
NUTRIENT. A chemical compound ( such as protein, fat, carbohydrate, vitamins, or minerals) thatmake up foods. These compounds are used by thebody to function and grow.
NUTRITION FACTS LABEL. Labels affixed to foodssold throughout the United States. Usually on theback or the side of the bottle, package, or bag, thelabel specifies the amount of calories provided by thecontents as well as the amount of nutrients, vitamins and supplements.
NUTRITIONIST. A specialist in the field of diet andnutrition.
NUTRITIVE SWEETENER. Any sweetener that addssome energy value to food.
Normal weight 5th percentile to less than the 85th percentile 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2
Nutrient dense—A characteristic of foods and beverages that provide vitamins, minerals, and other substances that contribute to adequate nutrient intakes or may have positive health effects, with little or no solid fats and added sugars, refined starches, and sodium. Ideally, these foods and beverages also are in forms that retain naturally occurring components, such as dietary fiber. All vegetables, fruits, whole grains, seafood, eggs, beans and peas, unsalted nuts and seeds, fat-free and low-fat dairy products, and lean meats and poultry—when prepared with little or no added solid fats, sugars, refined starches, and sodium—are nutrient-dense foods. These foods contribute to meeting food group recommendations within calorie and sodium limits. The term “nutrient dense” indicates the nutrients and other beneficial substances in a food have not been “diluted” by the addition of calories from added solid fats, sugars, or refined starches, or by the solid fats naturally present in the food.
Nutrient of concern—Nutrients that are overconsumed or underconsumed and current intakes may pose a substantial public health concern. Data on nutrient intake, corroborated with biochemical markers of nutritional status where available, and association with health outcomes are all used to establish a nutrient as a nutrient of concern. Underconsumed nutrients, or “shortfall nutrients,” are those with a high prevalence of inadequate intake either across the U.S. population or in specific groups, relative to IOM-based standards, such as the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) or the Adequate Intake (AI). Overconsumed nutrients are those with a high prevalence of excess intake either across the population or in specific groups, related to IOM-based standards such as the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) or other expert group standards.
Nutrition Evidence Library (NEL) systematic review—A process that uses state-of-the-art methods to identify, evaluate, and synthesize research to provide timely answers to important food and nutrition-related questions to inform U.S. Federal nutrition policies, programs, and recommendations. This rigorous, protocol-driven methodology is designed to minimize bias, maximize transparency, and ensure the use of all available relevant and high-quality research. The NEL is a program within the USDA Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion. For more detailed information, visit: www.NEL.gov.
OA is also known as degenerative joint disease orDJD.
OBESE. More than 20% over the individual’s idealweight for their height and age or having a body massindex (BMI) of 30 or greater.
OBJECTIVE. Based on facts.
OBLIQUES. Types of abdominal muscle.
OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER. A psychiatricdisorder in which a person is unable to control thedesire to repeat the same action over and over.
OLIGOSACCHARIDE. A carbohydrate that consistsof a relatively small number of monosaccharides, suchas maltodextrins, fructo-oligo-saccharides.
OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS. Any of several polyunsaturated fatty acids found in leafy green vegetables, vegetable oils, and fish such as salmon and mackerel,capable of reducing serum cholesterol levels and having anticoagulant properties.
OMEGA-6 FATTY ACIDS. Polyunsaturated fatty acidwhere the first double bond occurs on the sixthcarbon-to-carbon double bond from the methyl endof the hydrocarbon chain.
OMEGA-9 FATTY ACIDS. Polyunsaturated fattyacids where the first double bond occurs on the ninthcarbon-to-carbon double bond from the methyl end ofthe hydrocarbon chain.
OMNIVORE. An animal whose teeth and digestivetract are adapted to consume either plant or animalmatter. The term does not mean, however, that a givenspecies consumes equal amounts of plant and animalproducts. Omnivores include bears, squirrels, opossums, rats, pigs, foxes, chickens, crows, monkeys,most dogs, and humans.
OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTION. An infection causedby a normally harmless organism that causes diseasewhen the host’s immune system in weakened. Opportunistic infections are a major problem in the medical and nutritional care of HIV patients.
OSTEOARTHRITIS (OA). The most common form ofarthritis, characterized by erosion of the cartilage layerthat lies between the bones in weight-bearing joints.
OSTEOCALCIN. The second most abundant proteinin bone after collagen required for bone mineralization.
OSTEOMALACIA. Softening of bone, particularlybone weakened by demineralization (loss of mineral) and most notably by the depletion of calcium frombone. Osteomalacia may be caused by poor dietaryintake or poor absorption of calcium and other minerals needed to harden bones. Osteomalacia is a characteristic feature of vitamin D deficiency in adults.
OSTEOPENIA. Mild thinning of the bone mass, butnot as severe as osteoporosis. Osteopenia results whenthe formation of bone is not enough to offset normalbone loss. Osteopenia is generally considered the firststep to osteoporosis.
OSTEOPOROSIS. Thinning of the bones with reduction in bone mass due to depletion of calcium and boneprotein. Osteoporosis predisposes a person to fractures,which are often slow to heal and heal poorly. It is morecommon in older adults, particularly post-menopausalwomen; in patients on steroids; and in those who takesteroidal drugs. Unchecked osteoporosis can lead tochanges in posture, physical abnormality (particularlythe form of hunched back known colloquially as‘‘dowager’s hump’’), and decreased mobility.
OTOTOXICITY. Damage caused to the nerves in the ear that are involved in hearing or balance. Ototoxicityis a rare but serious adverse affect of loop diuretics.
OVERWEIGHT. A person is too heavy for his orher height; someone with a Body Mass Index of from25 to 30.
OVOLACTOVEGETARIAN. A vegetarian who consumes eggs and dairy products as well as plant-basedfoods. The official diet recommended to Seventh-dayAdventists is ovolactovegetarian.
OVOVEGETARIAN. A vegetarian who eats eggs inaddition to plant-based foods but does not use milk orother dairy products.
OXIDATION. A chemical reaction in which electrons are lost from a molecule or atom. in the bodythese reactions can damage cells, tissues, and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) leading to cardiovascular disease or cancer.
OXIDATIVE INJURY. Damage that occurs to the cells and tissues of the brain and body by highly reactivesubstances known as free radicals.
OXIDATIVE STRESS. Accumulation in the body ofdestructive molecules such as free radicals that canlead to cell death.
OXIDATIVE.Related to chemical reaction with oxygen or oxygen-containing compounds.
OXYTOCIN. A hormone that produces a calm,relaxed feeling.
Obese Equal to or greater than the 95th percentile 30.0 kg/m2 and greater
Oils—Fats that are liquid at room temperature. Oils come from many different plants and some fish. Some common oils include canola, corn, olive, peanut, safflower, soybean, and sunflower oils. A number of foods are naturally high in oils such as nuts, olives, some fish, and avocados. Foods that are mainly made up of oil include mayonnaise, certain salad dressings, and soft (tub or squeeze) margarine with no trans fats. Oils are high in monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fats, and lower in saturated fats than solid fats. A few plant oils, termed tropical oils, including coconut oil, palm oil and palm kernel oil, are high in saturated fats and for nutritional purposes should be considered as solid fats. Partially hydrogenated oils that contain trans fats should also be considered as solid fats for nutritional purposes. (See Fats.)
Ounce-equivalent (oz-eq)—The amount of a food product that is considered equal to 1 ounce from the grain or protein foods food group. An oz-eq for some foods may be less than a measured ounce in weight if the food is concentrated or low in water content (nuts, peanut butter, dried meats, flour) or more than a measured ounce in weight if the food contains a large amount of water (tofu, cooked beans, cooked rice or pasta).
Overweight 85th to less than the 95th percentile 25.0 to 29.9 kg/m2
PALEOLITHIC. Human cultures of the Pleistoceneepoch, from about one million to 10,000 years ago.
PAMABROM. A mild diuretic found in several overthe-counter compounds for the relief of premenstrualdiscomfort and water retention.
PANCHA KARMA. An intensive one- to two-weekritual of detoxification practiced in Ayurvedic medicine that includes enemas, bloodletting, and nasal irrigation as well as fasting.
PANCREAS. The pancreas is a flat, glandular organlying below the stomach. It secretes the hormonesinsulin and glucagon that control blood sugar levels and also secretes pancreatic enzymes in the small intestine for the breakdown of fats and proteins.
PARASITE. An organism that lives in or on a host; itobtains nourishment from the host without benefitingor killing the host. The parasites responsible for foodborne illnesses are mostly single-cell organisms such as amoeba, giardia, and trichomonas, while others have aworm-like appearance.
PARASITIC. Feeding off another organism.
PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM (PSNS). Thepart of the autonomic nervous system that stimulates the secretion of saliva, speeds up peristalsis, and increases the flow of blood to the stomach andintestines.
PARKINSON’S DISEASE. An incurable nervous disorder marked by symptoms of trembling hands and aslow, shuffling walk.
PAROXETINE. An antidepressant drug sold underthe br and name Paxil.
PASTEURIZATION. A process for partial sterilization of milk or beverage juices by raising the liquid toa temperature that destroys disease organisms withoutchanging its basic taste or appearance. Pasteurizedfruit or vegetable juices are considered unsuitable forjuice fasts on the grounds that pasteurization destroysimportant nutrients in the juices.
PATHOGEN. An organism that causes a disease.
PAU D’ARCO. A medicinal bark derived from a treenative to the Amazon rainforest. Pau d’arco is oftenbrewed as a tea and taken as a diuretic or anti-inflammatory preparation.
PEAK BONE MASS. The highest level of bonestrength generally reached in the mid 20’s.
PECTIN. A water-soluble heterosaccharide (complex molecule composed of a sugar molecule and anon-sugar component) found in the cell walls of higherplants. It is used primarily as a gelling agent in makingjams and jellies, but can also be taken by mouth as aform of plant fiber to relieve constipation.
PEMMICAN. Dried meat pounded into a powder and mixed with hot fats and dried fruits or berries tomake a loaf or small cakes.
PEPSIN. A protease enzyme in the gastric juices ofcarnivorous and omnivorous animals that breaksdown the proteins found in meat. Its existence inhumans is considered evidence that humans evolvedas omnivores.
PERENNIAL HERB. A plant that lives for severalyears with new growth appearing each year.
PERENNIAL. Reoccurring, as a plant that comesback for more than one growing season.
PERIANAL ABSCESS. Abscess that can occur whenthe tiny anal glands that open on the inside of the anusbecome blocked and infected by bacteria. When pusdevelops, an abscess forms.
PERIANAL. The area surrounding the anus.
PERIPHERAL VASCULAR DISEASE. Diseases of anyblood vessels except those that supply blood to theheart.
PERISTALSIS. A sequence of muscle contractionsthat progressively squeeze one small section of thedigestive tract and then the next to push food alongthe tract, something like pushing toothpaste out of itstube.
PEROXIDES. Peroxides are highly reactive free radical molecules, used as powerful bleaching agents andas disinfectant. in the body, they form as intermediatecompounds, for example during the oxidation oflipids, and may damage tissues.
PERSONAL TRAINER. An individual specializing indiet and exercise who works with clients on an individual basis.
PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDER. An impairment in the development of social skills.
PESCE/POLLO VEGETARIAN. A vegetarian whoavoids the use of red meat but will include fish (pescein Italian) or chicken (pollo in Italian) in the diet.
PH. A measure of the acidity or alkalinity of asolution. Solutions with a pH below 7 are consideredacidic while those above 7 are alkaline. A pH ofexactly 7 (pure water) is neutral.
PHARYNX. Part of the neck and throat that connects the mouth to the esophagus.
PHENTERMINE. An anorectic drug sold under alarge number of br and names.
PHENYLALANINE.An essential amino acid that cannot be consumed by people with a metabolic diseaseknown as phenylketonuria (PKU).
PHENYLKETONURIA (PKU). A rare inherited metabolic disorder resulting in accumulation of phenylalanine, an amino acid, in the body. It can lead to mentalretardation and seizures. People with PKU should notuse products containing the artificial sweetener aspartame because it is broken down into phenylalanine( and other products) during digestion.
PHOSPHOLIPID. A type of fat used to build cellmembranes.
PHYCOCYANIN. A protein found in spirulina thatgives the alga its blue color. Phycocyanin has antiinflammatory effects.
PHYTATE. Phytic acid; an acid in cereal grains thatinterferes with the intestinal absorption of minerals such as calcium and magnesium.
PHYTOCHEMICALS. A nonnutritive bioactive plantsubstance, such as a flavonoid or carotenoid, considered to have a beneficial effect on human health.
PHYTOESTROGENS. Compounds that occur naturally in plants and under certain circumstances canhave actions like human estrogen. When eaten theybind to estrogen receptors and may act in a similar wayto oestrogen.
PITA. Pitta; pita bread; a round, double-layered orpocket flatbread made from wheat and yeast.
PITUITARY GLAND. A small gl and at the base of thebrain that produces many regulating hormones.
PLACEBO EFFECT.A term that describes the improvement in symptoms that some patients experience whenthey are given a placebo (sugar pill or other inert substance that does not contain any medication) as part of aclinical trial. Patients with functional dyspepsia show ahigh rate of placebo effect in trials of new medicationsfor the disorder.
PLAQUE. Material forming deposits on the surfaceof the teeth, which may promote bacterial growth anddecay.
PLASMA. The liquid part of the blood and lymphatic fluid, which makes up about half of its volume. It is92% water, 7% protein and 1% minerals.
POLAR. Containing regions of positive and negative charge; likely to be soluble in water.
POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME. A condition inwhich cysts in the ovary interfere with normal ovulation and menstruation.
POLYMORPHISM. A gene that exists in variant orallelic forms.
POLYOL. An alcohol containing more than twohydroxyl (OH) groups, such as sugar alcohols,inositol.
POLYPEPTIDE. A molecule made up of a string ofamino acids. A protein is an example of a polypeptide.
POLYSACCHARIDE. Any of a class of carbohydrates, such as starch, amylose, amylopectin and cellulose, consisting of several monosaccharides.
POLYUNSATURATED FAT. A type of fat found in some vegetable oils, such as sunflower, safflower, and corn.
POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACID.A fatty acid molecule with two or more double bonds, known to bebeneficial to health when consumed in moderateamounts.
POLYURIA. An excessive production of urine.
POMELO. A large pear-shaped citrus fruit with athick rind that was crossed with the sweet orange in the West Indies to produce the modern grapefruit.
POST-PRANDIAL REACTIVE HYPERINSULINEMIA. Acondition resulting from excess insulin productionafter eating.
POSTPARTUM. This refers to the period of timeafter childbirth.
PRE-LOADING. Administering in advance, such as drinking water prior to exercise that is likely to causewater loss.
PREBIOTICS. Substances that help manage bacteria. Two principal types commonly used are themannanoligosaccharides (MOS) that bind potentiallyharmful bacteria in the gut and allow beneficial bacteria to dominate, and fructanoligosaccharides (FOS)that deliver fructans into the fore gut to ’feed’ the acidproducing bacteria.
PREMENSTRUAL SYNDROME (PMS). A syndrome thatinvolves symptoms that occur in relation to the menstrual cycle and which interfere with the woman’s life.
PREMIER STUDY. A research study that tested theeffects of comprehensive and simultaneous lifestylechanges on blood pressure—weight loss, exercise, and a healthy diet.
PRIMARY PULMONARY HYPERTENSION. Abnormally high blood pressure in the arteries of the lungs,with no other heart disease causing this problem.
PROBIOTICS. Probiotics are dietary supplementscontaining potentially beneficial bacteria or yeast.
PROCYANIDIN. These are associated with flavanoid antioxidants derived from grape seed extract,grape skin and red wine.Like Quercetin and Resveratrol they have many health-promoting benefits.
PROGESTERONE.A female steroid hormone secretedby the ovary; it is produced by the placenta in largequantities during pregnancy.
PROKINETIC DRUGS. A class of medications givento strengthen the motility of the digestive tract.
PROLAPSE. The falling down or slipping out ofplace of an organ or part.
PROSCRIPTION. prohibitions, rules against.
PROSTAGLANDINS. A group of biologically important molecules that have hormone-like actions. Theyhelp regulate expansion of the blood vessels and theairways, control inflammation, are found in semen, and cause the uterus to contract. They are madefrom fatty acids.
PROTEASES. Enzymes that break peptide bondsbetween the amino acids of proteins.
PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS. Biochemical process, inwhich proteins are synthesized from simple aminoacids.
PROTEIN SEQUENCE. The arrangement of aminoacids in a protein.
PROTEIN.A nutrient that helps build many parts ofthe body, including muscle and bone. Protein provides4 calories per gram. It is found in foods like meat, fish,poultry, eggs, dairy products, beans, nuts, and tofu.
PROTEINS. These are large molecules which aremade up of thousands of amino acids. The primaryfunction of protein is growth and repair of bodytissues.
PROTEOME. All of the proteins expressed in a cell,tissue, or organism.
PROTOZOAN. Any member of a phylum of onecelled eukaryotes (organisms with nuclei) that are ableto move but are not animals in the strict sense. Theorganism that causes giardiasis is a protozoan.
PROVITAMIN. A substance that the body can convert into a vitamin.
PSORIASIS.A chronic disease of the skin marked byred patches covered with white scales.
PSYCHOANALYSIS. A psychological theory thatconcerns the mental functions of humans both on theconscious and unconscious levels.
PSYLLIUM. Fleawort; plants of the genus Plantagowhose seed husks have laxative activity.
PUBERTY. A stage of physiological maturity thatmarks the start of being capable of sexual reproduction.
PULMONARY EMBOLISM.Lodging of a blood clot inthe lumen (open cavity) of a pulmonary artery, causing a severe dysfunction in respiratory function. Pulmonary emboli often originate in the deep leg veins and travel to the lungs through blood circulation.
PULSES. Peas, beans and lentils are collectivelyknown as pulses. The term is reserved for crops harvested solely for the dry grain, so excludes green beans and green peas.
PURGING. A behavior associated with eating disorders that includes self-induced vomiting and abuseof laxatives as well as diuretics.
PURINES. Substances in DNA that can be metabolized into uric acid.
PURSLANE. A broad-leafed plant native to India,commonly considered a weed in the United States.
PYCNOGENOL. Trade name of a commercial mixture of bioflavonoids (catechins, phenolic acid, proan,thocyanidins) that exhibits antioxidative activity.
People on a VLCD have an increased risk of developing gallstones from an increase of cholesterol contentin the bile produced by the liver.
Physical activity—Any bodily movement produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle that increases energy expenditure above a basal level; generally refers to the subset of physical activity that enhances health.
Point-of-purchase—A place where sales are made. Various intervention strategies have been proposed to affect individuals’ purchasing decisions at the point of purchase, such as board or menu labeling with various amounts of nutrition information or shelf tags in grocery stores.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)—Fatty acids that have two or more double bonds and are usually liquid at room temperature. Primary sources are vegetable oils and some nuts and seeds. PUFAs provide essential fats such as n-3 and n-6 fatty acids.
Portion size—The amount of a food served or consumed in one eating occasion. A portion is not a standardized amount, and the amount considered to be a portion is subjective and varies.
Poultry—All forms of chicken, turkey, duck, geese, guineas, and game birds (e.g., quail, pheasant).
Prehypertension—See Hypertension.
Processed meat and processed poultry—All meat or poultry products preserved by smoking, curing, salting, and/or the addition of chemical preservatives. Processed meats and poultry include all types of meat or poultry sausages (bologna, frankfurters, luncheon meats and loaves, sandwich spreads, viennas, chorizos, kielbasa, pepperoni, salami, and summer sausages), bacon, smoked or cured ham or pork shoulder, corned beef, pastrami, pig’s feet, beef jerky, marinated chicken breasts, and smoked turkey products.
Protein—One of the macronutrients; a major functional and structural component of every animal cell. Proteins are composed of amino acids, nine of which are indispensable (essential), meaning they cannot be synthesized by humans and therefore must be obtained from the diet. The quality of dietary protein is determined by its amino acid profile relative to human requirements as determined by the body’s requirements for growth, maintenance, and repair. Protein quality is determined by two factors: digestibility and amino acid composition.
Purslane has the highest level of omega-3 fatty acidsof any leafy vegetable, however, and is eaten fresh insalads or cooked like spinach as part of the Cretandiet.
QUERCETIN. A natural compound which belongsto a group of plant pigments called flavonoids that arelargely responsible for the colours of many fruits,flowers, and vegetables. They have many health-promoting benefits that may protect against cancer andcardiovascular disease.
QUINOA. A species of goosefoot that originated inthe high Andes and is raised as a food crop for itsedible seeds, which have an unusually high proteincontent (12–18 percent). Quinoa is considered apseudo-cereal rather than a true cereal grain becauseit is not a grass.
RACEMIC. A chemical term, relating to the way acompound turns a bean of light. Racemic compounds are composed of equal amounts of left turning and right turning molecules. Molecules whichturn a beam of light to the right are dextrorotatorywhile those which turn a beam to the left arelevorotatory.
RADIOPHARMACEUTICAL. A drug that is radioactive. It is used for diagnosing or treating diseases.
RANCID. Having a bad or ‘‘off’’ smell or taste as aresult of oxidation.
RAW FOODISM. A term that refers to a group ofdietary regimens composed entirely of foods that havenot been raised above a certain temperature. Manyraw foodists are vegans, although some eat raw meator fish and use unpasteurized dairy products.
REACTIVE NITROGEN SPECIES (RNS). Highly reactivechemicals, containing nitrogen, that react easily withother molecules, resulting in potentially damagingmodifications.
REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES (ROS). Damaging molecules, including oxygen radicals such as superoxideradical and other highly reactive forms of oxygenthat can harm biomolecules and contribute to disease states.
RECOMMENDED DIETARY ALLOWANCES (RDA). The average daily dietary intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (approximately 98 percent) healthy individuals.
RECTUM. Short, muscular tube that forms the lowest portion of the large intestine and connects it to the anus.
REGURGITATIONAL VALVULAR HEART DISEASE. Atype of damage to the heart valves which allows blood to leak back through the valve.
RENNET. An enzyme used to coagulate milk,derived from the mucous membranes lining the stomachs of unweaned calves.
RESERVOIR. A term used for animals that can carryparasites that cause disease in humans without fallingill themselves. Beavers, dogs, cats, cattle, and horsesare common reservoirs of G. lamblia.
RESISTANCE TRAINING. Also called strength orweight training, this type of exercise increases muscle strength by working the muscles against a weight or 1053 force. Free weights, weight machines, resistancebands, or a person’s body weight can be used in resistance training.
RESVERATROL. A natural compound found ingrapes, mulberries, peanuts and red wine that mayprotect against cancer and cardiovascular disease.
RETINA. The layer of light-sensitive cells on theback of the eyeball that function in converting lightinto nerve impulses.
RETINOL. Also known as vitamin A. This is a fatsoluble vitamin found in animal food sources.
RETROVIRUS. A single-stranded virus that replicates by reverse transcription to produce DNA copiesthat are incorporated into the genome of infected cells.
RH FACTOR. Rh factor is a subset of blood type itmay be either positive or negative.
RHEUMATISM. A painful condition of the joints ormuscles.
RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS (RA). An autoimmune disorder that can affect organ systems as well as thejoints. It is much less common that OA but is potentially much more serious.
RHEUMATOLOGIST. A physician, usually a pediatrician or internist, who has additional specializedtraining in the diagnosis and treatment of diseasesthat affect the bones, muscles, and joints.
RHIZOME. An underground creeping stem.
RIBONUCLEIC ACID (RNA). A molecule that helpsdecode genetic information (DNA) and is necessaryfor protein synthesis.
RICKETS. The softening of the bones in childrenleading to fractures and deformity, caused by VitaminD deficiency.
ROME CRITERIA. A set of guidelines for defining and diagnosing functional dyspepsia and other stomach disorders, first drawn up in the mid-1980s by agroup of specialists in digestive disorders meeting in Rome, Italy. The Rome criteria continue to be revised and updated every few years.
Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA)—The average daily dietary intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all (97 to 98%) healthy individuals in a particular life stage and sex group.
Refined grains—Grains and grain products with the bran and germ removed; any grain product that is not a whole-grain product. Many refined grains are low in fiber but enriched with thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and iron, and fortified with folic acid.
SALT. In chemistry, an ionic crystalline compoundof positively charged ions and negatively charged ionssuch that the product is neutral (without a net charge).
SATIETY. The quality or state of feeling comfortably full. It is sometimes used as a criterion for evaluating people’s satisfaction with diets or diet products.
SATURATED FAT. Fats found in animal products and in coconut and palm oils that are a major dietarycause of high LDL.
SATURATED FATTY ACID. A fatty acid molecule withno double bonds, known to be detrimental to healthwhen consumed in large amounts.
SCHIZOPHRENIA. A mental illness in which theperson suffers from distorted thinking, hallucinations, and a reduced ability to feel normal emotions.
SCLERODERMA. An autoimmune disease with manyconsequences, including esophageal wall thickening.
SCURVY. A deficiency disease caused by a lack ofdietary vitamin C, characterized by spongy gums,eventual loss of teeth, and bleeding into the skin andmucous membranes.
SEBACEOUS GLANDS. Small glands in the skin,usually part of hair follicles, that produce a fatty substance called sebum.
SEBUM. The fatty substance secreted by sebaceousglands. It helps moisturize and protect skin and hair.
SEDATIVE. Medicines that increase drowsiness andcalmness.
SELENOCYSTEINE. Unusual amino acid consistingof cysteine bound to selenium. The process of insertingselenocysteine into proteins is unique to cysteine, andoccurs in organisms ranging from bacteria to man.
SELENOPROTEIN.Enzyme that requires selenium tofunction. At least eleven have been identified.
SEROTONIN. Chemical used by nerve cells to communicate with one another.
SERTRALINE. An antidepressant drug sold underthe br and name Zoloft.
SERUM CHOLESTEROL. Cholesterol that travels inthe blood.
SERUM. The clear fluid part of the blood thatremains after clotting. Serum contains no blood cellsor clotting proteins, but does contain electrolytes.
SET POINT. In medicine, a term that refers to bodytemperature, body weight, or other measurements thata human or other organism tries to keep at a particularvalue. The Shangri-la diet is said to work by loweringthe dieter’s set point for body weight.
SHORT BOWEL SYNDROME. Problems related toabsorbing nutrients after removal of part of the smallintestine.
SIALAGOGUE. Promotes the flow of saliva.
SICKLE CELL ANEMIA. A genetic disorder in whichred blood cells take on an unusual shape, leading toother problems with the blood.
SIMPLE CARBOHYDRATES. Simple sugars; monosaccharides, such as fructose found in fruit, and disaccharides made up of two sugar units, such as lactose and sucrose or table sugar.
SMALL INTESTINE. The part of the digestive tractlocated between the stomach and the large intestine. Itconsists of the duodenum, the jejunum, and the ileum.
SMOOTHIE.A blended beverage resembling a milkshake in texture but often made with nondairy ingredients. Slim-Fast and other diet product companiesmarket prepackaged smoothies as well as shakes.
SNP. Single nucleotide polymorphism; a variantDNA sequence in which the base of a single nucleotidehas been replaced by a different base.
SODIUM BENZOATE. A type of preservative used inprocessed foods known to cause food sensitivity in some individuals when consumed in the diet.
SODIUM METABISULPHITE. A type of sulphite preservative used in processed foods known to cause foodsensitivity in some individuals when consumed in the diet.
SOLUBLE FIBER.The part of a food plant that resistsdigestion and absorption in the human small intestinebut is fermented partially or completely in the largeintestine. This fermentation yields short-chain fattyacids, which are beneficial to health by stabilizingblood glucose levels, lowering blood cholesterol levels, and supporting the immune system.
SOLUBLE. Capable of being dissolved.
SORBITOL. Sugar alcohol food additive used as asweetener in commercially prepared low sugar foods and gum.
SPA. A hotel or resort for relaxation or health andfitness-related activities. Some people undergoing ajuice fast do so at a spa in order to combine the fastwith colonics, massage therapy, and other practicesassociated with juice fasts. The English word spacomes from the name of a famous health resort inBelgium.
SPORTS DRINK. Any beverage containing carbohydrates, electrolytes, and other nutrients as well aswater, intended to help athletes rehydrate after training or competition. Sports drinks are isotonic, whichmeans that they contain the same proportion of water,electrolytes, and carbohydrates as the human body.
SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS.Thin, flat cells foundin layers or sheets covering surfaces such as skin andthe linings of blood vessels and esophagus.
STARCH. A naturally abundant nutrient carbohydrate found in seeds, fruits, tubers, and roots.
STARVATION. A long-term consequence of fooddeprivation.
STEATORRHEA.The passage of large amounts of fator grease in the stool, caused by failure to absorb itduring digestion. Steatorrhea is often associated withchronic giardiasis.
STEROID. A family of compounds that share asimilar chemical structure. This family includes theestrogen and testosterone, vitamin D, cholesterol, and the drugs cortisone and prendisone.
STEROL. The building blocks of steroid hormones;a type of lipid.
STIMULANT. An agent, especially a chemical agent such as caffeine, that temporarily arouses or accelerates physiological or organic activity.
STROKE. The sudden death of some brain cells dueto a lack of oxygen when the blood flow to the brain isimpaired by blockage or rupture of an artery.
SUBJECTIVE. Based on feelings and opinions.
SUCCULENT.Plants with large, fleshy leaves, stems, and roots capable of storing a lot of water. Theseplants grow in dry environments.
SUCROSE. The natural sweetener commonly usedas table sugar; sucrose is a compound of two simplesugars, glucose and fructose. It is used as the standardfor measuring the sweetening power of high-intensityartificial sweeteners.
SULPHITE. A type of preservative used in processedfoods known to cause food sensitivity in some individuals when consumed in the diet.
SULPHUR DIOXIDE. A type of preservative used inprocessed foods known to cause food sensitivity in some individuals when consumed in the diet.
SUPPOSITORY.A tablet or capsule, usually made ofglycerin, inserted into the rectum to stimulate themuscles to contract and expel feces.
SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. The part of theautonomic nervous system that speeds up heart rate,increases lung capacity, increases the flow of blood toskeletal muscles, and diverts blood flow from thedigestive tract.
SYNAPTIC VESICLES. Also called neurotransmittervesicles, these pouches store the various neurotransmitters that are released by nerve cells into the synaptic cleft of a synapse.
SYNDROME X. A group of risk factors thattogether, put someone at higher risk of coronaryartery disease. These risk factors include: central obesity (excessive fat tissue in the abdominal region),glucose intolerance, high triglycerides and low HDLcholesterol, and high blood pressure.
SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS (SLE). A seriousautoimmune disease of connective tissue that affectsmainly women. It can cause joint pain, rash, andinflammation of organs such as the kidney.
Saturated fatty acids—Fatty acids that have no double bonds. Fats high in saturated fatty acids are usually solid at room temperature. Major sources include animal products such as meats and dairy products, and tropical oils such as coconut or palm oils.
Screen time—Time spent in front of a computer, television, video or computer game system, smart phone or tablet, or related device.
Seafood—Marine animals that live in the sea and in freshwater lakes and rivers. Seafood includes fish (e.g., salmon, tuna, trout, and tilapia) and shellfish (e.g., shrimp, crab, and oysters).
Sedentary behavior—Any waking activity predominantly done while in a sitting or reclining posture. A behavior that expends energy at or minimally above a person’s resting level (between 1.0 and 1.5 metabolic equivalents) is considered sedentary behavior.
Serving size—A standardized amount of a food, such as a cup or an ounce, used in providing information about a food within a food group, such as in dietary guidance. Serving size on the Nutrition Facts label is determined based on the Reference Amounts Customarily Consumed (RACC) for foods that have similar dietary usage, product characteristics, and customarily consumed amounts for consumers to make “like product” comparisons. (See Portion size.)
Shortfall nutrient—See Nutrient of concern.
Social-Ecological Model—A framework developed to illustrate how sectors, settings, social and cultural norms, and individual factors converge to influence individual food and physical activity choices.
Solid fats—Fats that are usually not liquid at room temperature. Solid fats are found in animal foods, except for seafood, and can be made from vegetable oils through hydrogenation. Some tropical oil plants, such as coconut and palm, are considered as solid fats due to their fatty acid composition. The fat component of milk and cream (butter) is solid at room temperature. Solid fats contain more saturated fats and/or trans fats than liquid oils (e.g., soybean, canola, and corn oils), with lower amounts of monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids. Common fats considered to be solid fats include: butter, beef fat (tallow), chicken fat, pork fat (lard), shortening, coconut oil, palm oil and palm kernel oil. Foods high in solid fats include: full-fat (regular) cheeses, creams, whole milk, ice cream, marbled cuts of meats, regular ground beef, bacon, sausages, poultry skin, and many baked goods made with solid fats ( such as cookies, crackers, doughnuts, pastries, and croissants). (See Fats and Nutrient dense)
Starches—Many glucose units linked together into long chains. Examples of foods containing starch include vegetables (e.g., potatoes, carrots), grains (e.g., brown rice, oats, wheat, barley, corn), and legumes (beans and peas; e.g., kidney beans, garbanzo beans, lentils, split peas).
Sugar-sweetened beverages—Liquids that are sweetened with various forms of added sugars. These beverages include, but are not limited to, soda (regular, not sugar-free), fruitades, sports drinks, energy drinks, sweetened waters, and coffee and tea beverages with added sugars. Also called calorically sweetened beverages. (See Added Sugars and Carbohydrates: Sugars.)
Sugars—Composed of one unit (a monosaccharide, such as glucose or fructose) or two joined units (a disaccharide, such as lactose or sucrose). Sugars include those occurring naturally in foods and beverages, those added to foods and beverages during processing and preparation, and those consumed separately. (See Added sugars.)
Supplements are used as antioxidant.
Symptoms include sudden shortness of breath, chestpain (worse with breathing), and rapid heart andrespiratory rates.
TARGET HEART RATE. A method using pulse measurements to monitor progress while exercising. Atarget heart rate is typically 50-85 percent of an individual’s maximum heart rate.
TEMPEH. A food product made from whole fermented soybeans that originated in Indonesia. It canbe used as a meat substitute in vegan dishes or sliced and cooked in hot vegetable oil.
TESTOSTERONE. A male sex hormone responsiblefor secondary sex characteristics.
TEXTURED VEGETABLE PROTEIN (TVP). A meat substitute made from defatted soybean flour formed intoa dough and cooked by steam while being forcedthrough an extruder. It resembles ground beef in texture and can replace it in most recipes. TVP is alsoknown as textured soy protein or TSP.
THEOBROMINE. A breakdown product of caffeinethat is responsible for the diuretic effect of coffee andtea.
THERMOGENESIS. The generation of heat in the body.
THERMOGENIC. Producing heat. Relating to dietdrugs the term is used to indicate a drug which causesincreased use of calories without exercise.
THRIFTY GENE HYPOTHESIS. A hypothesis proposedin 1962 by James Neel, a geneticist, to explain the epidemic of obesity in the modern world. The thriftygene hypothesis holds that certain genes in humansmaximize metabolic efficiency and food searchingbehavior, and that humans carrying these ‘‘thrifty’’genes were more likely to survive during past periodsof famine. The abundance of food in the modernworld means that people with these genes are predisposed to obesity and other disorders related to overeating. The thrifty gene hypothesis has, however, beenlargely discarded in recent years.
THYROID. A gl and located beneath the voice boxthat produces thyroid hormone, a hormone that regulates growth and metabolism.
TIAs typically last 2 to 30 minutes and can produceproblems with vision, dizziness, weakness or troublespeaking.
TOFU. Bean curd; a soft food made by coagulatingsoy milk with an enzyme, calcium sulfate, or anorganic acid, and pressing the resulting curds intoblocks or chunks. Tofu is frequently used in vegetarianor vegan dishes as a meat or cheese substitute.
TOLERANCE. Adjustment of the body to a drug sothat it takes more and more to produce the samephysiological or psychological effect, or adjustmentto a drug so that side effects are diminished.
TONIC. An agent that restores or increases bodytone.
TOPICAL. Referring to a type of medication that isapplied to the surface of the body or instilled into theeye or ear. Some topical medications contain artificialpreservatives.
TOTAL CHOLESTEROL. The total amount of cholesterol in the blood. Cholesterol is a fat-like substancemade in the body and present in many foods.
TOURETTE’S SYNDROME. A neurological disordercharacterized by involuntary body movements calledtics, and uncontrollable speech.
TOXIN. A general term for something that harmsor poisons the body.
TRACE MINERALS. Minerals needed by the body intiny, trace amounts (RDA < 200mg/day). They include:selenium, iron, zinc, copper, manganese, molybdenum,chromium, arsenic, germanium, lithium, rubidium, tin.
TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE (TCM). An ancientsystem of medicine based on maintaining a balance invital energy or qi that controls emotions, spiritual, and1056 physical well being. Diseases and disorders result fromimbalances in qi, and treatments such as massage,exercise, acupuncture, nutritional and herbal therapyis designed to restore balance and harmony to thebody.
TRANQUILIZER. Medicine that reduces anxiety andtension.
TRANS FATTY ACIDS. Monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fats where the double bonds create a linearformation. They are formed largely by the manufacture of partial hydrogenation of oils, which convertsmuch of the oil into trans fat. Hydrogenated fats andtrans fats are often used interchangably.
TRANSFERRIN. A protein synthesized in the liverthat transports iron in the blood to red blood cells.
TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK (TIA). A neurologicalevent with the signs and symptoms of a stroke, butwhich go away within a short period of time. Alsocalled a mini-stroke, a TIA is due to a temporarylack of adequate blood and oxygen (ischemia) to thebrain. This is often caused by the narrowing (or, lessoften, ulceration) of the carotid arteries (the majorarteries in the neck that supply blood to the brain).
TRANSVERSE ABDOMINIS. A muscle layer of thewall of the abdomen.
TRAVELER’S DIARRHEA (TD). A nonspecific term fora form of diarrhea that frequently affects touristsabroad. TD is the most common illness affecting visitors to other countries. Some cases of TD are causedby G. lamblia, but others result from infection withvarious bacteria, rotaviruses, and other intestinalparasites.
TRIGLYCERIDE. A fat that comes from food or ismade up of other energy sources in the body. Elevatedtriglyceride levels contribute to the development ofatherosclerosis.
TRITICALE. A man-made hybrid plant that combines wheat and rye and that produces a higher proteinflour.
TROPHOZOITE. The active feeding stage in the lifecycle of G. lamblia. It is the trophozoites that multiplywithin the small intestine and cause the diarrhea andother symptoms of giardiasis.
TROPICAL SPRUE. A condition of unknown causewhereby abnormalities in the lining of the small intestine prevent the body from absorbing food normally.
TRYPTOPHAN. An amino acid that plays a role inthe manufacture of serotonin.
TUBER. Swollen plant stem below the ground.
TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR. A substance that is partof an inflammatory system and used as a marker tomeasure inflammation.
TURMERIC. A perennial herb of the ginger familyused as a coloring agent as well as a spice in foodpreparation. It is used in some traditional Ayurvedicmedicines for the relief of joint pain and inflammation.
TYPE II DIABETES. Inability to regulate the level ofsugar in the blood due to a reduction in the number ofinsulin receptors on the body’s cells.
The USA’s leading voluntary health organizationsolely dedicated to osteoporosis and bone health.
The cause is inadequate supply of oxygen to the muscle usually caused by clogged blood vessels.
The largest prospective study of long-term successfulweight loss. The NWCR is tracking over 5,000 individuals who have lost at least 30 pounds and kept it offfor at least one year.
The major form of pharmacological treatment forHIV since 1996. HAART is a combination of severaldifferent antiretroviral drugs selected for patients onan individual basis. It is not a cure for HIV infection1042 but acts to slow the replication of the virus and discourage new mutations. HAART has a number of sideeffects that complicate maintaining good nutrition inHIV patients.
The most common monounsaturated fats are palmitoleic acid and oleic acid. They are found naturally insuch foods as nuts and avocados; oleic acid is the maincomponent of olive oil.
The symptoms usually begin 5 to 11 days before thestart of menstruation and usually stop when menstruation begins, or shortly thereafter. Symptomsmay include headache, swelling of ankles, feet, andhands, backache, abdominal cramps or heaviness,abdominal pain, bloating, or fullness, muscle spasms,breast tenderness, weight gain, recurrent cold sores,acne flare-ups, nausea, constipation or diarrhea,decreased coordination, food cravings, less tolerancefor noises and lights, and painful menstruation.
This disease is not associated with gluten enteropathy.
This process also is called renal dialysis.
To be licensed as a registered dietitian (RD) in the United States, a person must complete a bachelor’sdegree in a nutrition-related field and pass a statelicensing examination. Dietitians are also callednutritionists.
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL)—The highest average daily nutrient intake level likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects for nearly all individuals in a particular life stage and sex group. As intake increases above the UL, the potential risk of adverse health effects increases.
Trans fatty acids—Unsaturated fatty acids that are structurally different from the unsaturated fatty acids that occur naturally in plant foods. Sources of trans fatty acids include partially hydrogenated vegetable oils used in processed foods such as desserts, microwave popcorn, frozen pizza, some margarines, and coffee creamer. Trans fatty acids also are present naturally in foods that come from ruminant animals (e.g., cattle and sheep), such as dairy products, beef, and lamb.
ULCERATION. Formation of ulcers on a mucousmembrane accompanied by pus and necrosis of surrounding tissue.
ULCERATIVE COLITIS. Inflammation of the innerlining of the colon, characterized by open sores thatappear in its mucous membrane.
UNDERNUTRITION. Food intake too low to maintain adequate energy expenditure without weight loss.
UNSATURATED FAT. Fat that help to lower bloodcholesterol; olive and canola oils are monounsaturated fats; fish, safflower, sunflower, corn, and soybean oils are polyunsaturated fats.
URBAN LEGEND. A story, anecdote, or piece of advice based on hearsay and circulated by person-to person transmission.
URIC ACID. An acid found in urine and blood that is produced by the body’s breakdown of nitrogen wastes.
UROLOGIST. A physician that specializes in disorders of the urinary tract and male genitals.
USDA Food Patterns—A set of eating patterns that exemplify healthy eating, which all include recommended intakes for the five food groups (vegetables, fruits, grains, dairy, and protein foods) and for subgroups within the vegetables, grains, and protein foods groups. They also recommend an allowance for intake of oils. Patterns are provided at 12 calorie levels from 1,000 to 3,200 calories to meet varied calorie needs. The Healthy U.S.-Style Pattern is the base USDA Food Pattern.
Underweight Less than the 5th percentile Less than 18.5 kg/m2
VANILLIN. A synthetic version of vanilla flavoring.
VASODILATOR. A substance that causes blood vessels the body to become wider allowing the blood toflow more easily.
VEGAN. A vegetarian who excludes all animal products from the diet, including those that can beobtained without killing the animal. Vegans are alsoknown as strict vegetarians.
VEGETARIAN. A diet containing no meat, but usually containing other animal products such as milk and eggs.
VENOUS RETURN. The blood returning to the heart via the inferior and superior venae cavae.
VERY LOW-CALORIE DIET (VLCD). A term used by nutritionists to classify weight-reduction diets that allow around 800 calories or fewer a day.
VILLI INTESTINALES. Microscopic hair-like structures covered with epithelial cells measuring 1–1.5mm that line the mucous inner membrane of thesmall intestine.
VILLI. The tiny, finger-like projections on the surface of the small intestine that help absorb nutrients.
VITAMIN B1 (THIAMIN). A vitamin which plays an important role in carbohydrate metabolism. A deficiency can lead to a disorder called Beri Beri, which results in a widespread nerve degeneration, which can damage the brain, spinal cord and heart. Good sources of this vitamin for lacto-vegetarians includecereals, beans, potatoes and nuts.
VITAMIN B2 (RIBOFLAVIN). A vitamin or co-enzyme,which functions by helping the enzymes in the body function correctly. A good source of this vitamin forlacto-vegetarians is milk.
VITAMIN. A nutrient that the body needs insmall amounts to remain healthy but that the body cannot manufacture for itself and must acquire through diet.
Variety—A diverse assortment of foods and beverages across and within all food groups and subgroups selected to fulfill the recommended amounts without exceeding the limits for calories and other dietary components. For example, in the vegetables food group, selecting a variety of foods could be accomplished over the course of a week by choosing from all subgroups, including dark green, red and orange, legumes (beans and peas), starchy, and other vegetables.
WASTING SYNDROME. A combination of weight loss and change in composition of body tissues that occurs in patients with HIV infection. Typically, the patient’s body loses lean muscle tissue and replaces it with fat as well as losing weight overall.
WATER INTOXICATION. A potentially fatal condition that occurs when an athlete loses sodium from the body through perspiration and drinks a large quantity of water in a short period of time without replacing thesodium. Long-distance runners are particularly susceptible to water intoxication.
WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMIN. A vitamin that dissolvesin water and can be removed from the body in urine.
WEBCAST. The delivery of live or delayed sound orvideo broadcasts using web technologies. The sound or video is captured by conventional video or audio systems. It is then digitized and streamed on a web server.
WHEY. The watery part of milk, separated outduring the process of making cheese.
WHOLE-DIET APPROACH. The notion that the beneficial effects of any dietary regimen are produced bythe diet as a whole rather than by one specific food orother factor.
WOMEN’S HEALTH INITIATIVE (WHI).Major 15-yearresearch program sponsored by the National Heart,Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) of the NationalInstitutes of Health (NIH) to address the most common causes of death, disability and poor quality of life in postmenopausal women, namely cardiovascular disease, cancer, and osteoporosis. The WHI was launched in 1991 and consisted of a set of clinicaltrials and an observational study, which together involved 161,808 generally healthy postmenopausal women. The study results were published in the February 16, 2007 issue of The New England Journal of Medicine.
When referring to a tumor, it generally meansnoncancerous.
Whole fruits—All fresh, frozen, canned, and dried fruit but not fruit juice.
Whole grains—Grains and grain products made from the entire grain seed, usually called the kernel, which consists of the bran, germ, and endosperm. If the kernel has been cracked, crushed, or flaked, it must retain the same relative proportions of bran, germ, and endosperm as the original grain in order to be called whole grain. Many, but not all, whole grains are also sources of dietary fiber.
YOLK. The yellow spherical mass in the inner portion of an egg. It contains almost all the fat and cholesterol found in eggs.
n-3 PUFAs—A carboxylic acid with an 18-carbon chain and three cis double bonds, Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is an n-3 fatty acid that is essential in the diet because it cannot be synthesized by humans. Primary sources include soybean oil, canola oil, walnuts, and flaxseed. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are very long chain n-3 fatty acids that are contained in fish and shellfish. Also called omega-3 fatty acids.
n-6 PUFAs—A carboxylic acid with an 18-carbon chain and two cis double bonds, Linoleic acid (LA), one of the n-6 fatty acids, is essential in the diet because it cannot be synthesized by humans. Primary sources are nuts and liquid vegetable oils, including soybean oil, corn oil, and safflower oil. Also called omega-6 fatty acids.

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